In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (8)
- Molecular Pharmaceutics
- Tissue Engineering. Part A
- The Spine Journal : Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
- Regenerative Medicine
- Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.)
- Molecular Pharmaceutics
- Molecular Therapy : the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
- Journal of Controlled Release : Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Articles by Dmitriy Sheyn in JoVE
Computed Tomography and Optical Imaging of Osteogenesis-angiogenesis Coupling to Assess Integration of Cranial Bone Autografts and Allografts Doron Cohn Yakubovich1, Wafa Tawackoli2,3,4, Dmitriy Sheyn2,3, Ilan Kallai1, Xiaoyu Da4, Gadi Pelled1,2,3,4, Dan Gazit1,2,3,4, Zulma Gazit1,2,3 1Skeletal Biotech Laboratory, The Hebrew University–Hadassah Faculty of Dental Medicine, 2Department of Surgery, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 3Board of Governors Regenerative Medicine Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 4Biomedical Imaging Research Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center Implantation of autologous and allogeneic bone grafts constitute accepted approaches to treat major craniofacial bone loss. Yet the effect of graft composition on the interplay among neovascularization, cell differentiation and bone formation is unclear. We present a multimodal imaging protocol aimed to elucidate the angiogenesis-osteogenesis interdependence at the graft proximity.
Other articles by Dmitriy Sheyn on PubMed
Gene-modified Adult Stem Cells Regenerate Vertebral Bone Defect in a Rat Model Molecular Pharmaceutics. Oct, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21834548 Vertebral compression fractures (VCFs), the most common fragility fractures, account for approximately 700,000 injuries per year. Since open surgery involves morbidity and implant failure in the osteoporotic patient population, a new minimally invasive biological solution to vertebral bone repair is needed. Previously, we showed that adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) overexpressing a BMP gene are capable of inducing spinal fusion in vivo. We hypothesized that a direct injection of ASCs, designed to transiently overexpress rhBMP6, into a vertebral bone void defect would accelerate bone regeneration. Porcine ASCs were isolated and labeled with lentiviral vectors that encode for the reporter gene luciferase (Luc) under constitutive (ubiquitin) or inductive (osteocalcin) promoters. The ASCs were first labeled with reporter genes and then nucleofected with an rhBMP6-encoding plasmid. Twenty-four hours later, bone void defects were created in the coccygeal vertebrae of nude rats. The ASC-BMP6 cells were suspended in fibrin gel (FG) and injected into the bone void. A control group was injected with FG alone. The regenerative process was monitored in vivo using microCT, and cell survival and differentiation were monitored using tissue specific reporter genes and bioluminescence imaging (BLI). The surgically treated vertebrae were harvested after 12 weeks and subjected to histological and immunohistochemical (against porcine vimentin) analyses. In vivo BLI detected Luc-expressing cells at the implantation site over a 12-week period. Beginning 2 weeks postoperatively, considerable defect repair was observed in the group treated with ASC-BMP6 cells. The rate of bone formation in the stem cell-treated group was two times faster than that in the FG-treated group, and bone volume at the end point was 2-fold compared to the control group. Twelve weeks after cell injection the bone volume within the void reached the volume measured in native vertebrae. Immunostaining against porcine vimentin indicated that the ASC-BMP6 cells contributed to new bone formation. Here we show the potential of injections of BMP-modified ASCs to repair vertebral bone defects in a rat model. Our results could pave the way to a novel approach for the biological treatment of traumatic and osteoporosis-related vertebral bone injuries.
Oxygenated Environment Enhances Both Stem Cell Survival and Osteogenic Differentiation Tissue Engineering. Part A. Mar, 2013 | Pubmed ID: 23215901 Osteogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is highly dependent on oxygen supply. We have shown that perfluorotributylamine (PFTBA), a synthetic oxygen carrier, enhances MSC-based bone formation in vivo. Exploring this phenomenon's mechanism, we hypothesize that a transient increase in oxygen levels using PFTBA will affect MSC survival, proliferation, and differentiation, thus increasing bone formation. To test this hypothesis, MSCs overexpressing bone morphogenetic protein 2 were encapsulated in alginate beads that had been supplemented with an emulsion of PFTBA or phosphate-buffered saline. Oxygen measurements showed that supplementation of PFTBA significantly increased the available oxygen level during a 96-h period. PFTBA-containing beads displayed an elevation in cell viability, which was preserved throughout 2 weeks, and a significantly lower ratio of dead cells throughout the experiment. Furthermore, the cells from the control group expressed significantly more hypoxia-related genes such as VEGF, DDIT3, and PKG1. Additionally, PFTBA supplementation led to an increase in the osteogenic differentiation and to a decrease in chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs. In conclusion, PFTBA increases the oxygen availability in the vicinity of the MSCs, which suffer oxygen exhaustion shortly after encapsulation in alginate beads. Consequently, cell survival is increased, and hypoxia-related genes are downregulated. In addition, PFTBA promotes osteogenic differentiation over chondrogeneic differentiation, and thereby can accelerate MSC-based bone regeneration.
Nucleus Pulposus Degeneration Alters Properties of Resident Progenitor Cells The Spine Journal : Official Journal of the North American Spine Society. Jul, 2013 | Pubmed ID: 23578990 The intervertebral disc (IVD) possesses a minimal capability for self-repair and regeneration. Changes in the differentiation of resident progenitor cells can represent diminished tissue regeneration and a loss of homeostasis. We previously showed that progenitor cells reside in the nucleus pulposus (NP). The effect of the degenerative process on these cells remains unclear.
Transient Overexpression of Pparγ2 and C/ebpα in Mesenchymal Stem Cells Induces Brown Adipose Tissue Formation Regenerative Medicine. May, 2013 | Pubmed ID: 23627824 Brown adipose tissue plays a pivotal role in mammal metabolism and thermogenesis. It has a great therapeutic potential in several metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are suitable candidates for brown adipose tissue formation de novo. Pparγ2 and C/ebpα are nucleic receptors known to mediate adipogenic differentiation. We hypothesized that overexpression of the Pparγ2 and C/ebpα genes in MSCs would lead to the formation of adipose tissue.
Real-time Bioluminescence Functional Imaging for Monitoring Tissue Formation and Regeneration Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.). 2013 | Pubmed ID: 23929106 Real-time bioluminescence functional imaging holds great promise for regenerative medicine because it improves the researcher's ability to analyze and understand the healing process. Using transgenic mice coupled with gene-modified cells, one can employ this method to monitor host and graft activity in various models of tissue regeneration. We implemented real-time bioluminescence functional imaging to analyze bone formation by following a unique protocol in which the luciferase reporter gene, driven by an osteocalcin promoter, is used to visualize host and graft activity during bone formation. Real-time bioluminescence functional imaging can be used to assess the "host reaction" in transgenic mice models; it can also be used to assess "graft activity" in other animals in which genetically labeled stem cells have been implanted or direct gene delivery has been applied. The suggested imaging protocol requires 25 min per sample. However, special attention must be given to the layout of the experimental design, which determines the specific activity that will be analyzed.
PTH Promotes Allograft Integration in a Calvarial Bone Defect Molecular Pharmaceutics. Dec, 2013 | Pubmed ID: 24131143 Allografts may be useful in craniofacial bone repair, although they often fail to integrate with the host bone. We hypothesized that intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone (PTH) would enhance mesenchymal stem cell recruitment and differentiation, resulting in allograft osseointegration in cranial membranous bones. Calvarial bone defects were created in transgenic mice, in which luciferase is expressed under the control of the osteocalcin promoter. The mice were given implants of allografts with or without daily PTH treatment. Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) was performed to monitor host osteprogenitor differentiation at the implantation site. Bone formation was evaluated with the aid of fluorescence imaging (FLI) and microcomputed tomography (μCT) as well as histological analyses. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to evaluate the expression of key osteogenic and angiogenic genes. Osteoprogenitor differentiation, as detected by BLI, in mice treated with an allograft implant and PTH was over 2-fold higher than those in mice treated with an allograft implant without PTH. FLI also demonstrated that the bone mineralization process in PTH-treated allografts was significantly higher than that in untreated allografts. The μCT scans revealed a significant increase in bone formation in allograft + PTH treated mice comparing to allograft + PBS treated mice. The osteogenic genes osteocalcin (Oc/Bglap) and integrin binding sialoprotein (Ibsp) were upregulated in the allograft + PTH treated animals. In summary, PTH treatment enhances osteoprogenitor differentiation and augments bone formation around structural allografts. The precise mechanism is not clear, but we show that infiltration pattern of mast cells, associated with the formation of fibrotic tissue, in the defect site is significantly affected by the PTH treatment.
PTH Induces Systemically Administered Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Migrate to and Regenerate Spine Injuries Molecular Therapy : the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy. Nov, 2015 | Pubmed ID: 26585691 Osteoporosis affects more than 200 million people worldwide leading to more than 2 million fractures in the US alone. Unfortunately, surgical treatment is limited in patients with low bone mass. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) was shown to induce fracture repair in animals by activating mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). However it would be less effective in patients with fewer and/or dysfunctional MSCs due to aging and comorbidities. To address this, we evaluated the efficacy of combination intravenous MSC and PTH therapy versus monotherapy and untreated controls, in a rat model of osteoporotic vertebral bone defects. The results demonstrated that combination therapy significantly increased new bone formation versus monotherapies and no treatment by 2 weeks (p
Multiparameter Evaluation of in Vivo Gene Delivery Using Ultrasound-guided, Microbubble-enhanced Sonoporation Journal of Controlled Release : Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society. Dec, 2015 | Pubmed ID: 26682505 More than 1800 gene therapy clinical trials worldwide have targeted a wide range of conditions including cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and monogenic diseases. Biological (i.e. viral), chemical, and physical approaches have been developed to deliver nucleic acids into cells. Although viral vectors offer the greatest efficiency, they also raise major safety concerns including carcinogenesis and immunogenicity. The goal of microbubble-mediated sonoporation is to enhance the uptake of drugs and nucleic acids. Insonation of microbubbles is thought to facilitate two mechanisms for enhanced uptake: first, deflection of the cell membrane inducing endocytotic uptake, and second, microbubble jetting inducing the formation of pores in the cell membrane. We hypothesized that ultrasound could be used to guide local microbubble-enhanced sonoporation of a reporter gene encoding DNA. With the aim of optimizing delivery efficiency, we used nonlinear ultrasound and bioluminescence imaging modes to optimize the acoustic pressure, microbubble concentration, treatment duration, DNA dosage, and number of treatments required for in vivo Luciferase gene expression in a mouse thigh muscle model. We found that mice injected with 50μg luciferase plasmid DNA and 5×105 microbubbles followed by ultrasound treatment at 1.4MHz, 200kPa, 100-cycle pulse length, and 540-Hz pulse repetition frequency (PRF) for 2min exhibited superior transgene expression compared to all other treatment groups. The bioluminescent signal measured for these mice on Day 4 post-treatment was 100-fold higher (p