In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (16)
- Parasite Immunology
- The Journal of Experimental Medicine
- Immunology Letters
- Journal of Virology
- The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
- Immunological Reviews
- Development (Cambridge, England)
- PLoS Genetics
- Biochemical Pharmacology
- PloS One
- Analytical Cellular Pathology (Amsterdam)
- Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
- Genome Research
Articles by Elad Katz in JoVE
Long-term Culture of Human Breast Cancer Specimens and Their Analysis Using Optical Projection Tomography Alexander D. Leeper1, Joanne Farrell2, J. Michael Dixon1, Sarah E. Wedden2, David J. Harrison1, Elad Katz1 1Breakthrough Breast Cancer Research Unit, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, 2MRC Technology We have developed a collagen-based in vitro assay which promotes proliferation and invasion from samples of all breast cancer subtypes. Optical Projection Tomography, a three dimensional microscopy technique was utilised to visualise and quantify tumour expansion. This assay may be used to quantify drug response of individual tumour samples.
Other articles by Elad Katz on PubMed
Hyporesponsiveness of Murine B Lymphocytes Exposed to the Filarial Nematode Secreted Product ES-62 in Vivo Immunology. Jun, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12757619 ES-62 is a phosphorylcholine (PC)-containing glycoprotein secreted by filarial nematodes, parasites of vertebrates including humans. We have previously demonstrated that pre-exposure to this molecule in vitro interferes with subsequent B-cell receptor (BCR)-dependent activation of murine splenic B lymphocytes. To investigate the significance of this during filarial nematode infection, we now employ mice exposed to ES-62, at concentrations equivalent to those found for PC-containing molecules in the bloodstream of parasitized humans, via release from implanted osmotic pumps. Using this approach, we reveal that splenic and lymph node mononuclear cells, and also purified splenic B cells recovered from these mice have reduced ability ex vivo to proliferate in response to BCR ligation. The effect on BCR-induced proliferation was further investigated with respect to elucidating the mechanism of action of the parasite product and was shown to be associated with impaired signal transduction affecting the ErkMAPkinase pathway. Also, it was found that ES-62 did not act by promoting apoptosis or by priming for apoptosis following subsequent stimulation, but rather, appeared to render cells hyporesponsive to stimulation. ES-62 is thus shown for the first time to be a potent modulator of B lymphocyte function in vivo at a concentration relevant to natural filarial nematode infection. This finding considerably strengthens the idea that ES-62 plays a role in evasion of the immune response during parasitism.
In Vivo Activation of Murine Peritoneal B1 Cells by the Filarial Nematode Phosphorylcholine-containing Glycoprotein ES-62 Parasite Immunology. Aug-Sep, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 14651594 Mice were subcutaneously implanted with osmotic pumps loaded with ES-62, an immunomodulatory phosphorylcholine (PC)-containing glycoprotein secreted by filarial nematodes. The concentration of ES-62 was set to give a serum level within the range found for PC-containing molecules during natural filarial nematode infection of humans. Peritoneal B1 cells were recovered from the mice and the effect of exposure to ES-62 on a number of parameters determined ex vivo. B1 cells exposed to ES-62 showed an increase in spontaneous proliferation that was enhanced by ex vivo exposure to F(ab')(2) fragments of anti-IgM antibodies (anti-IgM), to activate via the antigen receptor, or LPS. Consistent with this, cell-cycle analysis indicated that cells pre-exposed to ES-62 showed increased cell-cycle progression following stimulation with anti-IgM. Pre-exposed cells also showed an increase in both spontaneous and anti-IgM induced IL-10 secretion. Taken together, these data indicate that ES-62 activates murine B1 cells in vivo. Conversely, we have previously shown conventional (B2) B cells to be rendered hypo-responsive by in vivo exposure to ES-62 and the different effect on the two cell types is discussed in relation to the nature of the antibody response arising during filarial nematode infection.
Bcl-(xL) Antagonism of BCR-coupled Mitochondrial Phospholipase A(2) Signaling Correlates with Protection from Apoptosis in WEHI-231 B Cells Blood. Jan, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 12969969 Crosslinking of the antigen receptors on the immature B-cell lymphoma, WEHI-231, leads to growth arrest and apoptosis. Commitment to such B-cell receptor (BCR)-mediated apoptosis correlates with mitochondrial phospholipase A2 activation, disruption of mitochondrial function, and cathepsin B activation. CD40 signaling has been reported to rescue WEHI-231 B cells from BCR-driven apoptosis primarily via up-regulation of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-xL. Coupling of the BCR to the mitochondrial phospholipase A2-dependent apoptotic pathway can be prevented by rescue signals via CD40. We now show that overexpression of Bcl-xL can prevent mitochondrial phospholipase A2 activation, disruption of mitochondrial potential, and postmitochondrial execution of BCR-mediated apoptosis via cathepsin B activation. Moreover, overexpression of Bcl-xL protects WEHI-231 B cells from mitochondrial disruption and apoptosis resulting from culture with exogenous arachidonic acid, the product of phospholipase A2 action, suggesting that Bcl-xL may act to antagonize arachidonic acid-mediated disruption of mitochondrial integrity. However, although Bcl-xL expression can mimic CD40-mediated rescue of BCR-driven apoptosis, it cannot substitute for CD40 signaling in the reversal of BCR-mediated growth arrest of WEHI-231 B cells. Rather, CD40 signaling additionally induces conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which promotes WEHI-231 B-cell proliferation by restoring the sustained, cycling extracellular signal-regulated/mitogen-activated protein kinase (ErkMAPkinase) signaling required for cell cycle progression.
MMTV Env Encodes an ITAM Responsible for Transformation of Mammary Epithelial Cells in Three-dimensional Culture The Journal of Experimental Medicine. Feb, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15684322 Expression of immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-containing signaling proteins is normally restricted to hematopoietic tissues. The basal activity of ITAM-containing proteins is mediated through negative regulation by coreceptors restricted to hematopoietic tissues. We have identified an ITAM signaling domain encoded within the env gene of murine mammary tumor virus (MMTV). Three-dimensional structures derived in vitro from murine cells stably transfected with MMTV env display a depolarized morphology in comparison with control mammary epithelial cells. This effect is abolished by Y>F substitution within the Env ITAM, as well as inhibitors of Syk and Src protein tyrosine kinases. Env-expressing cells bear hallmarks of cell transformation such as sensitivity to apoptosis induced by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) or TNFalpha, as well as down-regulation of E-cadherin and Keratin-18. Human normal mammary epithelial cells expressing MMTV Env also develop transformed phenotype, as typified by growth in soft agar and Matrigel invasion. These disruptions are abrogated by Y>F substitutions. We conclude that ITAM-dependent signals are generated through MMTV Env and trigger early hallmarks of transformation of mouse and human mammary epithelial cells. Therefore, these data suggest a heretofore unappreciated potential mechanism for the initiation of breast cancer and identify MMTV Env and ITAM-containing proteins in human breast tumors as probable oncoproteins.
Differential Signalling During B-cell Maturation Immunology Letters. Apr, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15790506 The molecular mechanism by which the antigen receptors (BCR) on B cells can elicit differential maturation state-specific responses is one of the central problems in B-cell differentiation yet to be resolved. Indeed, many of the early signalling events detected following BCR ligation, such as activation of protein tyrosine kinases (PTK), phospholipase C (PLC), phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI 3K), protein kinase C (PKC) and the RasMAPK (mitogen activating protein kinase) signalling cascades are observed throughout B-cell maturation. However, it is becoming clear that the differential functional responses of these BCR-coupled signals observed during B-cell maturation are dependent on a number of parameters including signal strength and duration, subcellular localisation of the signal, maturation-restricted expression of downstream signalling effector elements/isoforms and modulation of signal by co-receptors. Thus, the combined signature of BCR signalling is likely to dictate the functional response and act as a developmental checkpoint for B-cell maturation.
An Immunoreceptor Tyrosine Activation Motif in the Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus Envelope Protein Plays a Role in Virus-induced Mammary Tumors Journal of Virology. Sep, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16940512 Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) induces breast cancer with almost 100% efficiency in susceptible strains through insertional activation of protooncogenes, such as members of the wnt and fibroblast growth factor (fgf) families. We previously showed that expression of the MMTV envelope protein (Env) in normal immortalized mammary epithelial cells grown in three-dimensional cultures caused their morphological transformation, and that this phenotype depended on an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) present in Env and signaling through the Syk tyrosine kinase (E. Katz, M. H. Lareef, J. C. Rassa, S. M. Grande, L. B. King, J. Russo, S. R. Ross, and J. G. Monroe, J. Exp. Med. 201:431-439, 2005). Here, we examined the role of the Env protein in virus-induced mammary tumorigenesis in vivo. Similar to the effect seen in vitro, Env expression in the mammary glands of transgenic mice bearing either full-length wild-type provirus or only Env transgenes showed increased lobuloalveolar budding. Introduction of the ITAM mutation into the env of an infectious, replication-competent MMTV or into MMTV/murine leukemia virus pseudotypes had no effect on incorporation of Env into virus particles or on in vitro infectivity. Moreover, replication-competent MMTV bearing the ITAM mutation in Env infected lymphoid and mammary tissue at the same level as wild-type MMTV and was transmitted through milk. However, mammary tumor induction was greatly attenuated, and the pattern of oncogene activation was altered. Taken together, these studies indicate that the MMTV Env protein participates in mammary epithelial cell transformation in vivo and that this requires a functional ITAM in the envelope protein.
The Extracellular Matrix As an Adhesion Checkpoint for Mammary Epithelial Function The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology. 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17251051 The development of the mammary gland is spatially regulated by the interaction of the mammary epithelium with the extracellular matrix (ECM). Cells receive cues from the ECM through a family of adhesion receptors called integrins, consisting of alpha- and beta-chain dimers. Integrins assist cells in sensing their appropriate developmental context in response to both hormones and growth factors. Here we argue that cell adhesion to the ECM plays a key role in specific developmental checkpoints, particularly in alveolar survival, morphogenesis and function. Specific ablation of alphabeta1-integrins in the luminal epithelium of the mammary gland shows that this sub-type of receptors is required for proliferation, accurate morphological organisation, as well as milk secretion. Downstream, small Rho GTPases mediate cellular polarisation and differentiation. Current challenges in studying the integration of signals in checkpoints of mammary gland development are discussed.
Tonic B-cell and Viral ITAM Signaling: Context is Everything Immunological Reviews. Aug, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17624955 The presence of an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) makes immunoreceptors different from other signaling receptors, like integrins, G-coupled protein receptors, chemokine receptors, and growth factor receptors. This unique motif has the canonical sequence D/Ex(0-2)YxxL/Ix(6-8)YxxL/I, where x represents any amino acid and is present at least once in all immunoreceptor complexes. Immunoreceptors can promote survival, activation, and differentiation by transducing signals through these highly conserved motifs. Traditionally, ITAM signaling is thought to occur in response to ligand-induced aggregation, although evidence indicates that ligand-independent tonic signaling also provides functionally relevant signals. The majority of proteins containing ITAMs are transmembrane proteins that exist as part of immunoreceptor complexes. However, oncogenic viruses also have ITAM-containing proteins. In this review, we discuss what is known about tonic signaling by both cellular and viral ITAM-containing proteins and speculate what we might learn from each context.
Molecular Dissection of Integrin Signalling Proteins in the Control of Mammary Epithelial Development and Differentiation Development (Cambridge, England). Mar, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19211680 Cell-matrix adhesion is essential for the development and tissue-specific functions of epithelia. For example, in the mammary gland, beta1-integrin is necessary for the normal development of alveoli and for the activation of endocrine signalling pathways that determine cellular differentiation. However, the adhesion complex proteins linking integrins with downstream effectors of hormonal signalling pathways are not known. To understand the mechanisms involved in connecting adhesion with this aspect of cell phenotype, we examined the involvement of two proximal beta1-integrin signalling intermediates, integrin-linked kinase (ILK) and focal adhesion kinase (FAK). By employing genetic analysis using the Cre-LoxP system, we provide evidence that ILK, but not FAK, has a key role in lactogenesis in vivo and in the differentiation of cultured luminal epithelial cells. Conditional deletion of ILK both in vivo and in primary cell cultures resulted in defective differentiation, by preventing phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of STAT5, a transcription factor required for lactation. Expression of an activated RAC (RAS-related C3 botulinum substrate) in ILK-null acini restored the lactation defect, indicating that RAC1 provides a mechanistic link between the integrin/ILK adhesion complex and the differentiation pathway. Thus, we have determined that ILK is an essential downstream component of integrin signalling involved in differentiation, and have identified a high degree of specificity within the integrin-based adhesome that links cell-matrix interactions with the tissue-specific function of epithelia.
Activation of Estrogen-responsive Genes Does Not Require Their Nuclear Co-localization PLoS Genetics. Apr, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20421946 The spatial organization of the genome in the nucleus plays a role in the regulation of gene expression. Whether co-regulated genes are subject to coordinated repositioning to a shared nuclear space is a matter of considerable interest and debate. We investigated the nuclear organization of estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) target genes in human breast epithelial and cancer cell lines, before and after transcriptional activation induced with estradiol. We find that, contrary to another report, the ERalpha target genes TFF1 and GREB1 are distributed in the nucleoplasm with no particular relationship to each other. The nuclear separation between these genes, as well as between the ERalpha target genes PGR and CTSD, was unchanged by hormone addition and transcriptional activation with no evidence for co-localization between alleles. Similarly, while the volume occupied by the chromosomes increased, the relative nuclear position of the respective chromosome territories was unaffected by hormone addition. Our results demonstrate that estradiol-induced ERalpha target genes are not required to co-localize in the nucleus.
DNA Strand Breaks and Hypoxia Response Inhibition Mediate the Radiosensitisation Effect of Nitric Oxide Donors on Prostate Cancer Under Varying Oxygen Conditions Biochemical Pharmacology. Jan, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 20888325 Prostate cancer cells can exist in a hypoxic microenvironment, causing radioresistance. Nitric oxide (NO) is a radiosensitiser of mammalian cells. NO-NSAIDs are a potential means of delivering NO to prostate cancer cells. This study aimed to determine the effect and mechanism of action of NO-sulindac and radiation, on prostate cancer cells and stroma, under normoxia (21% oxygen) and chronic hypoxia (0.2% oxygen). Using clonogenic assays, at a surviving fraction of 10% the sensitisation enhancement ratios of radiation plus NO-sulindac over radiation alone on PC-3 cells were 1.22 and 1.42 under normoxia and hypoxia, respectively. 3D culture of PC-3 cells revealed significantly reduced sphere diameter in irradiated spheres treated with NO-sulindac. Neither NO-sulindac nor sulindac radiosensitised prostate stromal cells under normoxia or hypoxia. HIF-1Î± protein levels were reduced by NO-sulindac exposure and radiation at 21 and 0.2% oxygen. Alkaline Comet assay analysis suggested an increased rate of single strand DNA breaks and slower repair of these lesions in PC-3 cells treated with NO-sulindac prior to irradiation. There was a higher level of Î³-H2AX production and hence double strand DNA breaks following irradiation of NO-sulindac treated PC-3 cells. At all radiation doses and oxygen levels tested, treatment of 2D and 3D cultures of PC-3 cells with NO-sulindac prior to irradiation radiosensitised PC-3, with minimal effect on stromal cells. Hypoxia response inhibition and increased DNA double strand breaks are potential mechanisms of action. Neoadjuvent and concurrent use of NO-NSAIDs have the potential to improve radiotherapy treatment of prostate cancer under normoxia and hypoxia.
An in Vitro Model That Recapitulates the Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) in Human Breast Cancer PloS One. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21347235 The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a developmental program in which epithelial cells down-regulate their cell-cell junctions, acquire spindle cell morphology and exhibit cellular motility. In human breast cancer, invasion into surrounding tissue is the first step in metastatic progression. Here, we devised an in vitro model using selected cell lines, which recapitulates many features of EMT as observed in human breast cancer. By comparing the gene expression profiles of claudin-low breast cancers with the experimental model, we identified a 9-gene signature characteristic of EMT. This signature was found to distinguish a series of breast cancer cell lines that have demonstrable, classical EMT hallmarks, including loss of E-cadherin protein and acquisition of N-cadherin and vimentin expression. We subsequently developed a three-dimensional model to recapitulate the process of EMT with these cell lines. The cells maintain epithelial morphology when encapsulated in a reconstituted basement membrane, but undergo spontaneous EMT and invade into surrounding collagen in the absence of exogenous cues. Collectively, this model of EMT in vitro reveals the behaviour of breast cancer cells beyond the basement membrane breach and recapitulates the in vivo context for further investigation into EMT and drugs that may interfere with it.
An Analytical Approach Differentiates Between Individual and Collective Cancer Invasion Analytical Cellular Pathology (Amsterdam). 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21483102 Tumour cells employ a variety of mechanisms to invade their environment and to form metastases. An important property is the ability of tumour cells to transition between individual cell invasive mode and collective mode. The switch from collective to individual cell invasion in the breast was shown recently to determine site of subsequent metastasis. Previous studies have suggested a range of invasion modes from single cells to large clusters. Here, we use a novel image analysis method to quantify and categorise invasion. We have developed a process using automated imaging for data collection, unsupervised morphological examination of breast cancer invasion using cognition network technology (CNT) to determine how many patterns of invasion can be reliably discriminated. We used Bayesian network analysis to probabilistically connect morphological variables and therefore determine that two categories of invasion are clearly distinct from one another. The Bayesian network separated individual and collective invading cell groups based on the morphological measurements, with the level of cell-cell contact the most discriminating morphological feature. Smaller invading groups were typified by smoother cellular surfaces than those invading collectively in larger groups. Interestingly, elongation was evident in all invading cell groups and was not a specific feature of single cell invasion as a surrogate of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. In conclusion, the combination of cognition network technology and Bayesian network analysis provides an insight into morphological variables associated with transition of cancer cells between invasion modes. We show that only two morphologically distinct modes of invasion exist.
Two Possible Mechanisms of Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition in Invasive Ductal Breast Cancer Clinical & Experimental Metastasis. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21789718 Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) occurs in embryogenesis and normal development. It has been predominantly described in vitro and in animal studies, but EMT is also implicated in the progression of many cancers with proposed roles in invasion, metastasis and resistance to treatment. It is closely associated with loss of epithelial-specific protein expression and up-regulation of mesenchymal proteins, but several pathways are implicated in its execution. We explored what are the expression patterns of EMT proteins in human breast cancer. We interrogated two independent cohorts enriched for high-grade, invasive, ductal breast cancers. We used quantitative immunofluorescence to study the expression of key EMT proteins. Statistical associations to define protein profiles were based on Pearson's correlations. E-cadherin down-regulation in breast cancer was associated with Î²-catenin down-regulation, but not with up-regulation of mesenchymal markers. While EMT-related transcription repressors were expressed in some breast cancers, their expression did not negatively correlate with E-cadherin. Instead, an additional EMT profile was identified, composing Snail and Slug. In conclusion, EMT occurs in human breast cancer in a manner distinct to that seen in vitro. Certain EMT events are uncoupled from E-cadherin down-regulation and may constitute a novel EMT profile, which warrants further exploration.
Tissue Type is a Major Modifier of the 5-hydroxymethylcytosine Content of Human Genes Genome Research. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22106369 The discovery of substantial amounts of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), formed by the oxidation of 5-methylcytosine (5mC), in various mouse tissues and human embryonic stem (ES) cells has necessitated a reevaluation of our knowledge of 5mC/5hmC patterns and functions in mammalian cells. Here, we investigate the tissue specificity of both the global levels and locus-specific distribution of 5hmC in several human tissues and cell lines. We find that global 5hmC content of normal human tissues is highly variable, does not correlate with global 5mC content, and decreases rapidly as cells from normal tissue adapt to cell culture. Using tiling microarrays to map 5hmC levels in DNA from normal human tissues, we find that 5hmC patterns are tissue specific; unsupervised hierarchical clustering based solely on 5hmC patterns groups independent biological samples by tissue type. Moreover, in agreement with previous studies, we find 5hmC associated primarily, but not exclusively, with the body of transcribed genes, and that within these genes 5hmC levels are positively correlated with transcription levels. However, using quantitative 5hmC-qPCR, we find that the absolute levels of 5hmC for any given gene are primarily determined by tissue type, gene expression having a secondary influence on 5hmC levels. That is, a gene transcribed at a similar level in several different tissues may have vastly different levels of 5hmC (>20-fold) dependent on tissue type. Our findings highlight tissue type as a major modifier of 5hmC levels in expressed genes and emphasize the importance of using quantitative analyses in the study of 5hmC levels.
Determining Tamoxifen Sensitivity Using Primary Breast Cancer Tissue in Collagen-based Three-dimensional Culture Biomaterials. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22048005 We developed a three-dimensional assay prepared from primary breast cancer tissue and quantified tumor response to tamoxifen therapy. Freshly harvested breast cancer biopsies obtained at the time of curative surgical resection were fragmented and embedded into collagen I cushions. Changes in proliferation, apoptosis and tumor volume in response to tamoxifen treatment were quantified using image analysis software and optical projection tomography. Individual and collective invasion of epithelial cells into the surrounding collagen I was observed over the course of the experiment using phase contrast light microscopy and histopathological methods. Addition of tamoxifen to preparations derived from ER+ tumors demonstrated a range of response as measured by proliferative and apoptotic markers. In keeping with published data, tamoxifen reduced the percentage of apoptotic cells expressing cleaved caspase-3 (p = 0.02, Poisson regression analysis). Tamoxifen also reduced residual epithelial volume in ER+ tumors (p = 0.001, Mann-Whitney test), but not in ER low/- tumors (p = 0.78). Changes in tumor volume, as measured by optical projection tomography, allowed stratification into responsive and non-responsive tumors. The model mirrors observations of breast cancer response and histopathological changes to tamoxifen in neo-adjuvant trials. This assay provides a method of screening a battery of therapeutics against individual cancers, informing subsequent design of neo-adjuvant trials.