Articles by Elad Noy in JoVE
Real-time Live Imaging of T-cell Signaling Complex Formation Elad Noy*1, Maor H. Pauker*1, Mira Barda-Saad1 1The Mina and Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan University We describe a live-cell imaging method that provides insight into protein dynamics during the T-cell activation process. We demonstrate the combined usage of the T-cell spreading assay, confocal microscopy and imaging analysis to yield quantitative results to follow signaling complex formation throughout T-cell activation.
Other articles by Elad Noy on PubMed
Studying the Dynamics of SLP-76, Nck, and Vav1 Multimolecular Complex Formation in Live Human Cells with Triple-color FRET Science Signaling. Apr, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22534133 Protein-protein interactions regulate and control many cellular functions. A multimolecular complex consisting of the adaptor proteins SLP-76 (Src homology 2 domain-containing leukocyte protein of 76 kD), Nck, and the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Vav1 is recruited to the T cell side of the interface with an antigen-presenting cell during initial T cell activation. This complex is crucial for regulation of the actin machinery, antigen recognition, and signaling in T cells. We studied the interactions between these proteins as well as the dynamics of their recruitment into a complex that governs cytoskeletal reorganization. We developed a triple-color FÃ¶rster resonance energy transfer (3FRET) system to observe the dynamics of the formation of this trimolecular signaling complex in live human T cells and to follow the three molecular interactions in parallel. Using the 3FRET system, we demonstrated that dimers of Nck and Vav1 were constitutively formed independently of both T cell activation and the association between SLP-76 and Nck. After T cell receptor stimulation, SLP-76 was phosphorylated, which enabled the binding of Nck. A point mutation in the proline-rich site of Vav1, which abolishes its binding to Nck, impaired actin rearrangement, suggesting that Nck-Vav1 dimers play a critical role in regulation of the actin machinery. We suggest that these findings revise the accepted model of the formation of a complex of SLP-76, Nck, and Vav1 and demonstrate the use of 3FRET as a tool to study signal transduction in live cells.
WIP Remodeling Actin Behind the Scenes: How WIP Reshapes Immune and Other Functions International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22837718 Actin polymerization is a fundamental cellular process regulating immune cell functions and the immune response. The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp) is an actin nucleation promoting factor, which is exclusively expressed in hematopoietic cells, where it plays a key regulatory role in cytoskeletal dynamics. WASp interacting protein (WIP) was first discovered as the binding partner of WASp, through the use of the yeast two hybrid system. WIP was later identified as a chaperone of WASp, necessary for its stability. Mutations occurring at the WASp homology 1 domain (WH1), which serves as the WIP binding site, were found to cause the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) and X-linked thrombocytopenia (XLT). WAS manifests as an immune deficiency characterized by eczema, thrombocytopenia, recurrent infections, and hematopoietic malignancies, demonstrating the importance of WIP for WASp complex formation and for a proper immune response. WIP deficiency was found to lead to different abnormalities in the activity of various lymphocytes, suggesting differential cell-dependent roles for WIP. Additionally, WIP deficiency causes cellular abnormalities not found in WASp-deficient cells, indicating that WIP fulfills roles beyond stabilizing WASp. Indeed, WIP was shown to interact with various binding partners, including the signaling proteins Nck, CrkL and cortactin. Recent studies have demonstrated that WIP also takes part in non immune cellular processes such as cancer invasion and metastasis, in addition to cell subversion by intracellular pathogens. Understanding of numerous functions of WIP can enhance our current understanding of activation and function of immune and other cell types.