Articles by Elaine Ballinger in JoVE
Visualization of the Charcoal Agar Resazurin Assay for Semi-quantitative, Medium-throughput Enumeration of Mycobacteria Ben Gold1, Julia Roberts*1, Yan Ling*1, Landys Lopez Quezada1, Jou Glasheen1, Elaine Ballinger1, Selin Somersan-Karakaya2, Thulasi Warrier1, Carl Nathan1 1Departments of Microbiology & Immunology, Weill Cornell Medical College, 2Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College The charcoal agar resazurin assay (CARA) is a semi-quantitative, medium-throughput method to assess activity of test agents against mycobacteria that are replicating, non-replicating, or both. The CARA permits rapid evaluation of time- and concentration-dependent activity and identifies parameters to pursue by colony forming unit (CFU) assays.
Other articles by Elaine Ballinger on PubMed
Rapid, Semiquantitative Assay To Discriminate Among Compounds with Activity Against Replicating or Nonreplicating Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. Oct, 2015 | Pubmed ID: 26239979 The search for drugs that can kill replicating and nonreplicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis faces practical bottlenecks. Measurement of CFU and discrimination of bacteriostatic from bactericidal activity are costly in compounds, supplies, labor, and time. Testing compounds against M. tuberculosis under conditions that prevent the replication of M. tuberculosis often involves a second phase of the test in which conditions are altered to permit the replication of bacteria that survived the first phase. False-positive determinations of activity against nonreplicating M. tuberculosis may arise from carryover of compounds from the nonreplicating stage of the assay that act in the replicating stage. We mitigate these problems by carrying out a 96-well microplate liquid MIC assay and then transferring an aliquot of each well to a second set of plates in which each well contains agar supplemented with activated charcoal. After 7 to 10 days-about 2 weeks sooner than required to count CFU-fluorometry reveals whether M. tuberculosis bacilli in each well have replicated extensively enough to reduce a resazurin dye added for the final hour. This charcoal agar resazurin assay (CARA) distinguishes between bacterial biomasses in any two wells that differ by 2 to 3 log10 CFU. The CARA thus serves as a pretest and semiquantitative surrogate for longer, more laborious, and expensive CFU-based assays, helps distinguish bactericidal from bacteriostatic activity, and identifies compounds that are active under replicating conditions, nonreplicating conditions, or both. Results for 14 antimycobacterial compounds, including tuberculosis (TB) drugs, revealed that PA-824 (pretomanid) and TMC207 (bedaquiline) are largely bacteriostatic.
Novel Cephalosporins Selectively Active on Nonreplicating Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. Jul, 2016 | Pubmed ID: 27144688 We report two series of novel cephalosporins that are bactericidal to Mycobacterium tuberculosis alone of the pathogens tested, which only kill M. tuberculosis when its replication is halted by conditions resembling those believed to pertain in the host, and whose bactericidal activity is not dependent upon or enhanced by clavulanate, a β-lactamase inhibitor. The two classes of cephalosporins bear an ester or alternatively an oxadiazole isostere at C-2 of the cephalosporin ring system, a position that is almost exclusively a carboxylic acid in clinically used agents in the class. Representatives of the series kill M. tuberculosis within macrophages without toxicity to the macrophages or other mammalian cells.