Articles by Elif G. Sozmen in JoVE
Other articles by Elif G. Sozmen on PubMed
Inactivation of TGF-beta Signaling in Hepatocytes Results in an Increased Proliferative Response After Partial Hepatectomy Oncogene. Apr, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15735717 The transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) signaling pathway, which is activated by the TGF-beta receptor complex consisting of type I and type II TGF-beta receptors (TGFBR1 and TGFBR2), regulates cell growth and death. TGF-beta and components of its signaling pathway, particularly TGFBR2, have been implicated as tumor suppressor genes and important antimitogenic factors in the gastrointestinal tract and liver. An in vivo approach to study these effects has been hindered by the embryonic lethality of Tgfbr2(-/-) mice and poor viability of the Tgfb1(-/-) mice. Consequently, we have developed a hepatocyte-specific Tgfbr2 knockout mouse, the Alb-cre Tgfbr2(flx/flx) mouse, to study the physiologically relevant effects of TGF-beta signaling on epithelial cell proliferation in vivo. After 70% hepatectomy, we observed increased proliferation and an increased liver mass : body weight ratio in the Alb-cre Tgfbr2(flx/flx) mice compared to Tgfbr2(flx/flx) mice. We also observed decreased expression and increased phosphorylation of p130 in the livers from the Alb-cre Tgfbr2(flx/flx) mice as well as increased expression of cyclin E, which is transcriptionally regulated, in part, by p130:E2F4. Consistent with these results, in a hepatocyte cell line derived from the Tgfbr2(flx/flx) mice, we found that TGF-beta increases the nuclear localization of E2F4, and presumably the transcriptional repression of the p130:E2F4 complex. Thus, we have demonstrated that TGF-beta signaling in vivo regulates the mitogenic response in the regenerating liver, affecting the liver mass : body weight ratio after partial hepatectomy, and that these mitogenic responses are accompanied by alterations in p130 expression and phosphorylation, implicating p130 as one of the proteins regulated in vivo by TGF-beta during liver regeneration.
Transforming Growth Factor Beta Receptor Type II Inactivation Induces the Malignant Transformation of Intestinal Neoplasms Initiated by Apc Mutation Cancer Research. Oct, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 17047044 The transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) signaling pathway is a tumor-suppressor pathway that is commonly inactivated in colon cancer. TGF-beta is a secreted ligand that mediates its effects through a transmembrane heteromeric receptor complex, which consists of type I (TGFBR1) and type II subunits (TGFBR2). Approximately 30% of colon cancers carry TGFBR2 mutations, demonstrating that it is a common target for mutational inactivation in this cancer. To assess the functional role of TGFBR2 inactivation in the multistep progression sequence of colon cancer, we generated a mouse model that recapitulates two common genetic events observed in human colon cancer by mating Apc(1638N/wt) mice with mice that are null for Tgfbr2 in the intestinal epithelium, Villin-Cre;Tgfbr2(E2flx/E2flx) mice. In this model, we observed a dramatic increase in the number of intestinal adenocarcinomas in the Apc(1638N/wt);Villin-Cre;Tgfbr2(E2flx/E2flx) mice (called Apc(1638N/wt);Tgfbr2(IEKO)) compared with those mice with intact Tgfbr2 (Apc(1638N/wt);Tgfbr2(E2flx/E2flx)). Additionally, in vitro analyses of epithelial tumor cells derived from the Apc(1638N/wt);Tgfbr2(IEKO) mice showed enhanced expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase MMP-2 and MMP-9, as well as increased TGF-beta1 secretion in the conditioned medium. Similarly, primary tumor tissues from the Apc(1638N/wt);Tgfbr2(IEKO) mice also showed elevated amounts of TGF-beta1 as well as higher MMP-2 activity in comparison with Apc(1638N/wt);Tgfbr2(E2flx/E2flx)-derived tumors. Thus, loss of TGFBR2 in intestinal epithelial cells promotes the invasion and malignant transformation of tumors initiated by Apc mutation, providing evidence that Wnt signaling deregulation and TGF-beta signaling inactivation cooperate to drive the initiation and progression, respectively, of intestinal cancers in vivo.
A White Matter Stroke Model in the Mouse: Axonal Damage, Progenitor Responses and MRI Correlates Journal of Neuroscience Methods. Jun, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19439360 Subcortical white matter stroke is a common stroke subtype but has had limited pre-clinical modeling. Recapitulating this disease process in mice has been impeded by the relative inaccessibility of the subcortical white matter arterial supply to induce white matter ischemia in isolation. In this report, we detail a subcortical white matter stroke model developed in the mouse and its characterization with a comprehensive set of MRI, immunohistochemical, neuronal tract tracing and electron microscopic studies. Focal injection of the vasoconstrictor endothelin-1 into the subcortical white matter produces an infarct core that develops a maximal MRI signal by day 2, which is comparable in relative size and location to human subcortical stroke. Immunohistochemical studies indicate that oligodendrocyte apoptosis is maximal at day 1 and apoptotic cells extend away from the stroke core into the peri-infarct white matter. The amount of myelin loss exceeds axonal fiber loss in this peri-infarct region. Activation of microglia/macrophages takes place at 1 day after injection near injured axons. Neuronal tract tracing demonstrates that subcortical white matter stroke disconnects a large region of bilateral sensorimotor cortex. There is a robust glial response after stroke by BrdU pulse-labeling, and oligodendrocyte precursor cells are initiated to proliferate and differentiate within the first week of injury. These results demonstrate the utility of the endothelin-1 mediated subcortical stroke in the mouse to study post-stroke repair mechanisms, as the infarct core extends through the partially damaged peri-infarct white matter and induces an early glial progenitor response.
Models That Matter: White Matter Stroke Models Neurotherapeutics : the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics. Apr, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22362423 Stroke is a devastating neurological disease with limited functional recovery. Stroke affects all cellular elements of the brain and impacts areas traditionally classified as both gray matter and white matter. In fact, stroke in subcortical white matter regions of the brain accounts for approximately 30% of all stroke subtypes, and white matter injury is a component of most classes of stroke damage. However, most basic scientific information in stroke cell death and neural repair relates principally to neuronal cell death and repair. Despite an emerging biological understanding of white matter development, adult function, and reorganization in inflammatory diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, little is known of the specific molecular and cellular events in white matter ischemia. This limitation stems in part from the difficulty in generating animal models of white matter stroke. This review will discuss recent progress in studies of animal models of white matter stroke, and the emerging principles of cell death and repair in oligodendrocytes, axons, and astrocytes in white matter ischemic injury.