Articles by Elite Possik in JoVE
Measuring Oxidative Stress Resistance of Caenorhabditis elegans in 96-well Microtiter Plates Elite Possik1,2, Arnim Pause1,2 1Goodman Cancer Research Center, McGill University, 2Department of Biochemistry, McGill University C. elegans is an attractive model organism to study signal transduction pathways involved in oxidative stress resistance. Here we provide a protocol to measure oxidative stress resistance of C. elegans animals in liquid phase, using several oxidizing agents in 96 well plates.
Other articles by Elite Possik on PubMed
Randomized Codon Mutagenesis Reveals That the HIV Rev Arginine-rich Motif is Robust to Substitutions and That Double Substitution of Two Critical Residues Alters Specificity Journal of Molecular Recognition : JMR. Jun, 2013 | Pubmed ID: 23595810 The binding of the arginine-rich motif (ARM) of HIV Rev protein to its high-affinity site in stem IIB in the Rev response element (RRE) initiates assembly of a ribonucleoprotein complex that mediates the export of essential, incompletely spliced viral transcripts. Many biochemical, genetic, and structural studies of Rev-RRE IIB have been published, yet the roles of many peptide residues in Rev ARM are unconfirmed by mutagenesis. Rev aptamer I (RAI) is an optimized RRE IIB that binds Rev with higher affinity and for which mutational data are sparse. Randomized-codon libraries of Rev ARM were assayed for their ability to bind RRE IIB and RAI using a bacterial reporter system based on bacteriophage λ N-nut antitermination. Most Rev ARM residues tolerated substitutions without strong loss of binding to RRE IIB, and all except arginine 39 tolerated substitution without strong loss of binding to RAI. The pattern of critical Rev residues is not the same for RRE IIB and RAI, suggesting important differences between the interactions. The results support and aid the interpretation of existing structural models. Observed clinical variation is consistent with additional constraints on Rev mutation. By chance, we found double mutants of two highly critical residues, arginine 35 (to glycine) and asparagine 40 (to valine or lysine), that bind RRE IIB well, but not RAI. That an apparently distinct binding mode occurs with only two mutations highlights the ability of ARMs to evolve new recognition strategies and supports the application of neutral theories of evolution to protein-RNA recognition.
The Tumor Suppressor Folliculin Regulates AMPK-dependent Metabolic Transformation The Journal of Clinical Investigation. Jun, 2014 | Pubmed ID: 24762438 The Warburg effect is a tumorigenic metabolic adaptation process characterized by augmented aerobic glycolysis, which enhances cellular bioenergetics. In normal cells, energy homeostasis is controlled by AMPK; however, its role in cancer is not understood, as both AMPK-dependent tumor-promoting and -inhibiting functions were reported. Upon stress, energy levels are maintained by increased mitochondrial biogenesis and glycolysis, controlled by transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α and HIF, respectively. In normoxia, AMPK induces PGC-1α, but how HIF is activated is unclear. Germline mutations in the gene encoding the tumor suppressor folliculin (FLCN) lead to Birt-Hogg-Dubé (BHD) syndrome, which is associated with an increased cancer risk. FLCN was identified as an AMPK binding partner, and we evaluated its role with respect to AMPK-dependent energy functions. We revealed that loss of FLCN constitutively activates AMPK, resulting in PGC-1α-mediated mitochondrial biogenesis and increased ROS production. ROS induced HIF transcriptional activity and drove Warburg metabolic reprogramming, coupling AMPK-dependent mitochondrial biogenesis to HIF-dependent metabolic changes. This reprogramming stimulated cellular bioenergetics and conferred a HIF-dependent tumorigenic advantage in FLCN-negative cancer cells. Moreover, this pathway is conserved in a BHD-derived tumor. These results indicate that FLCN inhibits tumorigenesis by preventing AMPK-dependent HIF activation and the subsequent Warburg metabolic transformation.
Folliculin Regulates Ampk-dependent Autophagy and Metabolic Stress Survival PLoS Genetics. Apr, 2014 | Pubmed ID: 24763318 Dysregulation of AMPK signaling has been implicated in many human diseases, which emphasizes the importance of characterizing AMPK regulators. The tumor suppressor FLCN, responsible for the Birt-Hogg Dubé renal neoplasia syndrome (BHD), is an AMPK-binding partner but the genetic and functional links between FLCN and AMPK have not been established. Strikingly, the majority of naturally occurring FLCN mutations predisposing to BHD are predicted to produce truncated proteins unable to bind AMPK, pointing to the critical role of this interaction in the tumor suppression mechanism. Here, we demonstrate that FLCN is an evolutionarily conserved negative regulator of AMPK. Using Caenorhabditis elegans and mammalian cells, we show that loss of FLCN results in constitutive activation of AMPK which induces autophagy, inhibits apoptosis, improves cellular bioenergetics, and confers resistance to energy-depleting stresses including oxidative stress, heat, anoxia, and serum deprivation. We further show that AMPK activation conferred by FLCN loss is independent of the cellular energy state suggesting that FLCN controls the AMPK energy sensing ability. Together, our data suggest that FLCN is an evolutionarily conserved regulator of AMPK signaling that may act as a tumor suppressor by negatively regulating AMPK function.