Articles by Emanuele Mauri in JoVE
Other articles by Emanuele Mauri on PubMed
Drug-Polymer Interactions in Hydrogel-based Drug-Delivery Systems: An Experimental and Theoretical Study Chemphyschem : a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry. Aug, 2015 | Pubmed ID: 26239503 In drug-delivery systems, drug transport is a key step, but the interpretation of the transport mechanism is still controversial. Here, we investigated a promising hydrogel library loaded with the anticonvulsant drug ethosuximide (ESM). The self-diffusion coefficient of ESM was measured using two methods: a direct and advanced measurement with a pulsed field gradient spin-echo (PFGSE) method, using an NMR spectrometer equipped with high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) probe, and an indirect one based on fitting in vitro drug-delivery data. Starting from the experimental data a mathematical model without fitted parameters was developed and all the phenomena involved, that is, adsorption and diffusion, were considered. At low drug concentrations, adsorption prevails and consequently the diffusivity in the gels is lower than that in water. At high drug concentrations, where all adsorption sites are saturated, the diffusion in the gels is similar to that in a water solution. This study may pave the way for better device design.
A New Three Dimensional Biomimetic Hydrogel to Deliver Factors Secreted by Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Spinal Cord Injury Biomaterials. Jan, 2016 | Pubmed ID: 26497428 Stem cell therapy with human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) represents a promising strategy in spinal cord injury (SCI). However, both systemic and parenchymal hMSCs administrations show significant drawbacks as a limited number and viability of stem cells in situ. Biomaterials able to encapsulate and sustain hMSCs represent a viable approach to overcome these limitations potentially improving the stem cell therapy. In this study, we evaluate a new agarose/carbomer based hydrogel which combines different strategies to optimize hMSCs viability, density and delivery of paracrine factors. Specifically, we evaluate a new loading procedure on a lyophilized scaffold (soaked up effect) that reduces mechanical stress in encapsulating hMSCs into the hydrogel. In addition, we combine arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) tripeptide and 3D extracellular matrix deposition to increase the capacity to attach and maintain healthy hMSCs within the hydrogel over time. Furthermore, the fluidic diffusion from the hydrogel toward the injury site is improved by using a cling film that oriented efficaciously the delivery of paracrine factors in vivo. Finally, we demonstrate that an improved combination as here proposed of hMSCs and biomimetic hydrogel is able to immunomodulate significantly the pro-inflammatory environment in a SCI mouse model, increasing M2 macrophagic population and promoting a pro-regenerative environment in situ.
Tunable Drug Delivery Using Chemoselective Functionalization of Hydrogels Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications. Apr, 2016 | Pubmed ID: 26838916 In the last decades interests on cleavable linkers are growing due to the need to develop controlled drug delivery systems in biochemical and therapeutic applications. The synthesis of hydrogels as devices capable to maintain the drug level within a desired range for a long and sustained period of time is a leading strategy for this aim. However with respect to the good results obtained with antibodies and peptides there are a lot of problems related to the quick and uncontrolled diffusion of small molecules through hydrogel pores. In this work, we propose the functionalization of polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains with two different pH-sensitive linkers, ester and hydrazone, and their application as building blocks of microwave-assisted hydrogels for controlled delivery of small hydrophilic drugs. As drug mimetic we used Rhodamine B, a harmless fluorophore with steric hindrance and reactive groups similar to many small hydrophilic drugs. At physiological and low basic conditions, the cleavability of ester and hydrazone spacer evidenced the possibility to delay the release of drugs from the scaffold compared to hydrogels where drug was entrapped within the network only due to its steric hindrance. The obtained release profiles were compared, underlining the opportunity to tune the release rate using the synthesized hydrogels.