Articles by Emily J. Sharpe in JoVE
Yetişkin fareler ile Sinoatriyal Düğüm miyositlerin İzolasyonu, Kültür ve Fonksiyonel Karakterizasyonu Yöntemleri Emily J. Sharpe*1, Joshua R. St. Clair*1,2, Catherine Proenza1,3 1Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, 2Department of Bioengineering, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, 3Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus Yöntemler yama kelepçe elektrofizyoloji veya görüntüleme çalışmaları için yetişkin farelerin sinoatriyal düğüm miyosit (SAMs) izolasyonu için gösterilmiştir. İzole edilmiş hücreler, doğrudan kullanılabilir ya da bu tür genetik olarak kodlanmış muhabir olarak ilgi proteinlerin ekspresyonuna izin vermek için kültür içinde muhafaza edilebilir.
Other articles by Emily J. Sharpe on PubMed
Levels of Ca(V)1.2 L-Type Ca(2+) Channels Peak in the First Two Weeks in Rat Hippocampus Whereas Ca(V)1.3 Channels Steadily Increase Through Development Journal of Signal Transduction. 2012 | Pubmed ID: 23097697 Influx of calcium through voltage-dependent channels regulates processes throughout the nervous system. Specifically, influx through L-type channels plays a variety of roles in early neuronal development and is commonly modulated by G-protein-coupled receptors such as GABA(B) receptors. Of the four isoforms of L-type channels, only Ca(V)1.2 and Ca(V)1.3 are predominately expressed in the nervous system. Both isoforms are inhibited by the same pharmacological agents, so it has been difficult to determine the role of specific isoforms in physiological processes. In the present study, Western blot analysis and confocal microscopy were utilized to study developmental expression levels and patterns of Ca(V)1.2 and Ca(V)1.3 in the CA1 region of rat hippocampus. Steady-state expression of Ca(V)1.2 predominated during the early neonatal period decreasing by day 12. Steady-state expression of Ca(V)1.3 was low at birth and gradually rose to adult levels by postnatal day 15. In immunohistochemical studies, antibodies against Ca(V)1.2 and Ca(V)1.3 demonstrated the highest intensity of labeling in the proximal dendrites at all ages studied (P1-72). Immunohistochemical studies on one-week-old hippocampi demonstrated significantly more colocalization of GABA(B) receptors with Ca(V)1.2 than with Ca(V)1.3, suggesting that modulation of L-type calcium current in early development is mediated through Ca(V)1.2 channels.
Culture and Adenoviral Infection of Sinoatrial Node Myocytes from Adult Mice American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology. Aug, 2015 | Pubmed ID: 26001410 Pacemaker myocytes in the sinoatrial node of the heart initiate each heartbeat by firing spontaneous action potentials. However, the molecular processes that underlie pacemaking are incompletely understood, in part because of our limited ability to manipulate protein expression within the native cellular context of sinoatrial node myocytes (SAMs). Here we describe a new method for the culture of fully differentiated SAMs from adult mice, and we demonstrate that robust expression of introduced proteins can be achieved within 24-48 h in vitro via adenoviral gene transfer. Comparison of morphological and electrophysiological characteristics of 48 h-cultured versus acutely isolated SAMs revealed only minor changes in vitro. Specifically, we found that cells tended to flatten in culture but retained an overall normal morphology, with no significant changes in cellular dimensions or membrane capacitance. Cultured cells beat spontaneously and, in patch-clamp recordings, the spontaneous action potential firing rate did not differ between cultured and acutely isolated cells, despite modest changes in a subset of action potential waveform parameters. The biophysical properties of two membrane currents that are critical for pacemaker activity in SAMs, the "funny current" (If) and voltage-gated Ca(2+) currents (ICa), were also indistinguishable between cultured and acutely isolated cells. This new method for culture and adenoviral infection of fully-differentiated SAMs from the adult mouse heart expands the range of experimental techniques that can be applied to study the molecular physiology of cardiac pacemaking because it will enable studies in which protein expression levels can be modified or genetically encoded reporter molecules expressed within SAMs.
High-efficiency Reprogramming of Fibroblasts into Cardiomyocytes Requires Suppression of Pro-fibrotic Signalling Nature Communications. Sep, 2015 | Pubmed ID: 26354680 Direct reprogramming of fibroblasts into cardiomyocytes by forced expression of cardiomyogenic factors, GMT (GATA4, Mef2C, Tbx5) or GHMT (GATA4, Hand2, Mef2C, Tbx5), has recently been demonstrated, suggesting a novel therapeutic strategy for cardiac repair. However, current approaches are inefficient. Here we demonstrate that pro-fibrotic signalling potently antagonizes cardiac reprogramming. Remarkably, inhibition of pro-fibrotic signalling using small molecules that target the transforming growth factor-β or Rho-associated kinase pathways converts embryonic fibroblasts into functional cardiomyocyte-like cells, with the efficiency up to 60%. Conversely, overactivation of these pro-fibrotic signalling networks attenuates cardiac reprogramming. Furthermore, inhibition of pro-fibrotic signalling dramatically enhances the kinetics of cardiac reprogramming, with spontaneously contracting cardiomyocytes emerging in less than 2 weeks, as opposed to 4 weeks with GHMT alone. These findings provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying cardiac conversion of fibroblasts and would enhance efforts to generate cardiomyocytes for clinical applications.