In JoVE (2)

Other Publications (6)

Articles by Emily V. Stevenson in JoVE

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

A Quantitative Evaluation of Cell Migration by the Phagokinetic Track Motility Assay

1Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, 2Center for Molecular and Tumor Virology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, 3Department of Microbiology and Immunology, SUNY Upstate Medical University, 4Feist-Weiller Cancer Center, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center

JoVE 4165

 JoVE Biology

The Assembly and Application of 'Shear Rings': A Novel Endothelial Model for Orbital, Unidirectional and Periodic Fluid Flow and Shear Stress

1Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center in Shreveport, 2Biological Sciences, Louisiana Tech University, 3Neurology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center in Shreveport, 4Institut Cochin, Inserm U1016, Cnrs Umr8104, Université Paris Descartes

JoVE 54632

Other articles by Emily V. Stevenson on PubMed

Human Cytomegalovirus-regulated Paxillin in Monocytes Links Cellular Pathogenic Motility to the Process of Viral Entry

Journal of Virology. Feb, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 21084488

We have established that human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection modulates the biology of target primary peripheral blood monocytes, allowing HCMV to use monocytes as "vehicles" for its systemic spread. HCMV infection of monocytes results in rapid induction of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase [PI(3)K] and NF-κB activities. Integrins, which are upstream of the PI(3)K and NF-κB pathways, were shown to be involved in HCMV binding to and entry into fibroblasts, suggesting that receptor ligand-mediated signaling following viral binding to integrins on monocytes could trigger the functional changes seen in infected monocytes. We now show that integrin engagement and the activation of the integrin/Src signaling pathway are essential for the induction of HCMV-infected monocyte motility. To investigate how integrin engagement by HCMV triggers monocyte motility, we examined the infected-monocyte transcriptome and found that the integrin/Src signaling pathway regulates the expression of paxillin, which is an important signal transducer in the regulation of actin rearrangement during cell adhesion and movement. Functionally, we observed that paxillin is activated via the integrin/Src signaling pathway and is required for monocyte motility. Because motility is intimately connected to cellular cytoskeletal organization, a process that is also important in viral entry, we investigated the role paxillin regulation plays in the process of viral entry into monocytes. New results confirmed that HCMV entry into target monocytes was significantly reduced in cells deficient in paxillin expression or the integrin/Src/paxillin signaling pathway. From our data, HCMV-cell interactions emerge as an essential trigger for the cellular changes that allow for HCMV entry and hematogenous dissemination.

Human Cytomegalovirus Induction of a Unique Signalsome During Viral Entry into Monocytes Mediates Distinct Functional Changes: a Strategy for Viral Dissemination

Journal of Leukocyte Biology. Oct, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22715139

HCMV pathogenesis is a direct consequence of the hematogenous dissemination of the virus to multiple host organ sites. The presence of infected monocytes in the peripheral blood and organs of individuals exhibiting primary HCMV infection have long suggested that these blood sentinels are responsible for mediating viral spread. Despite monocytes being "at the right place at the right time", their short lifespan and the lack of productive viral infection in these cells complicate this scenario of a monocyte-driven approach to viral dissemination by HCMV. However, our laboratory has provided evidence that HCMV infection is able to induce a highly controlled polarization of monocytes toward a unique and long-lived proinflammatory macrophage, which we have demonstrated to be permissive for viral replication. These observations suggest that HCMV has evolved as a distinct mechanism to induce select proinflammatory characteristics that provide infected monocytes with the necessary tools to mediate viral spread following a primary infection. In the absence of viral gene products during the early stages of infection, the process by which HCMV "tunes" the inflammatory response in infected monocytes to promote viral spread and subsequently, viral persistence remains unclear. In this current review, we focus on the viral entry process of HCMV and the potential role of receptor-ligand interactions in modulating monocyte biology. Specifically, we examine the signaling pathways initiated by the distinct combination of cellular receptors simultaneously engaged and activated by HCMV during viral entry and how the acquisition of this distinct signalsome results in a nontraditional activation of monocytes leading to the induction of the unique, functional attributes observed in monocytes following HCMV infection.

The HCMV GH/gL/UL128-131 Complex Triggers the Specific Cellular Activation Required for Efficient Viral Internalization into Target Monocytes

PLoS Pathogens. 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23853586

We have established that HCMV acts as a specific ligand engaging and activating cellular integrins on monocytes. As a result, integrin signaling via Src activation leads to the functional activation of paxillin required for efficient viral entry and for the biological changes in monocytes needed for viral dissemination. These biological/molecular changes allow HCMV to use monocytes as "vehicles" for systemic spread and the establishment of lifelong persistence. However, it remains unresolved how HCMV specifically induces this observed monocyte activation. It was previously demonstrated that the HCMV gH/gL/UL128-131 glycoprotein complex facilitates viral entry into biologically relevant cell types. Nevertheless, the mechanism by which the gH/gL/UL128-131 complex promotes this process is unknown. We now show that only HCMV virions possessing the gH/gL/UL128-131 complex are capable of activating integrin/Src/paxillin-signaling in monocytes. In fibroblasts, this signaling is reversed, such that virus lacking the gH/gL/UL128-131 complex is the only virus able to induce the paxillin activation cascade. The presence of the gH/gL/UL128-131 complex also may have an inhibitory effect on integrin-mediated signaling pathway in fibroblasts. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the presence of the gH/gL/UL128-131 complex on the viral envelope, through its activation of the integrin/Src/paxillin pathway, is necessary for efficient HCMV internalization into monocytes and that appropriate actin and dynamin regulation is critical for this entry process. Importantly, productive infection in monocyte-derived macrophages was seen only in cells exposed to HCMV expressing the gH/gL/UL128-131 complex. From our data, the HCMV gH/gL/U128-131 complex emerges as the specific ligand driving the activation of the receptor-mediated signaling required for the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton and, consequently, for efficient and productive internalization of HCMV into monocytes. To our knowledge, our studies demonstrate a possible molecular mechanism for why the gH/gL/UL128-131 complex dictates HCMV tropism and why the complex is lost as clinical isolates are passaged in the laboratory.

HCMV Reprogramming of Infected Monocyte Survival and Differentiation: a Goldilocks Phenomenon

Viruses. Feb, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 24531335

The wide range of disease pathologies seen in multiple organ sites associated with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection results from the systemic hematogenous dissemination of the virus, which is mediated predominately by infected monocytes. In addition to their role in viral spread, infected monocytes are also known to play a key role in viral latency and life-long persistence. However, in order to utilize infected monocytes for viral spread and persistence, HCMV must overcome a number of monocyte biological hurdles, including their naturally short lifespan and their inability to support viral gene expression and replication. Our laboratory has shown that HCMV is able to manipulate the biology of infected monocytes in order to overcome these biological hurdles by inducing the survival and differentiation of infected monocytes into long-lived macrophages capable of supporting viral gene expression and replication. In this current review, we describe the unique aspects of how HCMV promotes monocyte survival and differentiation by inducing a "finely-tuned" macrophage cell type following infection. Specifically, we describe the induction of a uniquely polarized macrophage subset from infected monocytes, which we argue is the ideal cellular environment for the initiation of viral gene expression and replication and, ultimately, viral spread and persistence within the infected host.

Human Cytomegalovirus Promotes Survival of Infected Monocytes Via a Distinct Temporal Regulation of Cellular Bcl-2 Family Proteins

Journal of Virology. Dec, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 26676786

Monocytes play a key role in the hematogenous dissemination of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) to target organ systems. To infect monocytes and reprogram them to deliver infectious virus, HCMV must overcome biological obstacles, including the short life span of monocytes and their antiviral proapoptotic response to infection. We have shown that virally induced upregulation of cellular Mcl-1 promotes early survival of HCMV-infected monocytes, allowing cells to overcome an early apoptotic checkpoint at around 48 h postinfection (hpi). Here, we demonstrate an HCMV-dependent shift from Mcl-1 as the primary antiapoptotic player to the related protein, Bcl-2, later during infection. Bcl-2 was upregulated in HCMV-infected monocytes beginning at 48 hpi. Treatment with the Bcl-2 antagonist ABT-199 only reduced the prosurvival effects of HCMV in target monocytes beginning at 48 hpi, suggesting that Mcl-1 controls survival prior to 48 hpi, while Bcl-2 promotes survival after 48 hpi. Although Bcl-2 was upregulated following viral binding/signaling through cellular integrins (compared to Mcl-1, which is upregulated through binding/activation of epidermal growth factor receptor [EGFR]), it functioned similarly to Mcl-1, adopting the early role of Mcl-1 in preventing caspase-3 cleavage/activation. This distinct, HCMV-induced shift from Mcl-1 to Bcl-2 occurs in response to a cellular upregulation of proapoptotic Bax, as small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of Bax reduced the upregulation of Bcl-2 in infected monocytes and rescued the cells from the apoptotic effects of Bcl-2 inhibition. Our data demonstrate a distinct survival strategy whereby HCMV induces a biphasic regulation of cellular Bcl-2 proteins to promote host cell survival, leading to viral dissemination and the establishment of persistent HCMV infection.

A Critical Role for Monocytes/Macrophages During Intestinal Inflammation-associated Lymphangiogenesis

Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. Jun, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 26950310

Inflammation-associated lymphangiogenesis (IAL) is frequently observed in inflammatory bowel diseases. IAL is believed to limit inflammation by enhancing fluid and immune cell clearance. Although monocytes/macrophages (MΦ) are known to contribute to intestinal pathology in inflammatory bowel disease, their role in intestinal IAL has never been studied mechanistically. We investigated contributions of monocytes/MΦ to the development of intestinal inflammation and IAL.

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