Articles by Erica N. Pino in JoVE
Large Volume, Behaviorally-relevant Illumination for Optogenetics in Non-human Primates Leah C Acker1,2,3, Erica N. Pino1,4,5, Edward S. Boyden1,6,7, Robert Desimone1,7 1McGovern Institute, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2Harvard-MIT Division of Heath Sciences and Technology, 3Department of Anesthesiology, Duke University Medical Center, 4Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 5Division of Pharmacoengineering and Molecular Pharmaceutics, UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 6Media Lab and Department of Biological Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 7Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology A protocol to build a tissue penetrating illuminator for delivering light over large volumes with minimal diameter is presented.
Other articles by Erica N. Pino on PubMed
FEF Inactivation with Improved Optogenetic Methods Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Nov, 2016 | Pubmed ID: 27807140 Optogenetic methods have been highly effective for suppressing neural activity and modulating behavior in rodents, but effects have been much smaller in primates, which have much larger brains. Here, we present a suite of technologies to use optogenetics effectively in primates and apply these tools to a classic question in oculomotor control. First, we measured light absorption and heat propagation in vivo, optimized the conditions for using the red-light-shifted halorhodopsin Jaws in primates, and developed a large-volume illuminator to maximize light delivery with minimal heating and tissue displacement. Together, these advances allowed for nearly universal neuronal inactivation across more than 10 mm(3) of the cortex. Using these tools, we demonstrated large behavioral changes (i.e., up to several fold increases in error rate) with relatively low light power densities (≤100 mW/mm(2)) in the frontal eye field (FEF). Pharmacological inactivation studies have shown that the FEF is critical for executing saccades to remembered locations. FEF neurons increase their firing rate during the three epochs of the memory-guided saccade task: visual stimulus presentation, the delay interval, and motor preparation. It is unclear from earlier work, however, whether FEF activity during each epoch is necessary for memory-guided saccade execution. By harnessing the temporal specificity of optogenetics, we found that FEF contributes to memory-guided eye movements during every epoch of the memory-guided saccade task (the visual, delay, and motor periods).
Acetalated Dextran: A Tunable and Acid-Labile Biopolymer with Facile Synthesis and a Range of Applications Chemical Reviews. Feb, 2017 | Pubmed ID: 28032507 Acetalated dextran (Ac-DEX) is a tunable acid-labile biopolymer with facile synthesis, aptly designed for the formulation of microparticles for vaccines and immune modulation. Tunability of degradation is achieved based on the kinetics of reaction and the molecular weight of the parent dextran polymer. This tunability translated to differential rates of activation of CD8+ T cells in an in vitro ovalbumin model and illustrated that acid-labile polymer can activate CD8+ T cells at an increased rate compared to acid-insensitive polymers. In addition, Ac-DEX has been used to encapsulate small molecules, deliver nucleotides, transport inorganic molecules, formulate immune modulating therapies and vaccines, and trigger pH responsive constructs for therapy. Here we highlight the properties and results of Ac-DEX nano-/microparticles as well as the use of the polymer in other constructs and chemistries.