Articles by Erin M. Green in JoVE
Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) of Histone Modifications from Saccharomyces cerevisiae Meagan Jezek1, Alison Jacques1, Deepika Jaiswal1, Erin M. Green1 1Department of Biological Sciences, University of Maryland Here, we describe a protocol for chromatin immunoprecipitation of modified histones from the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Immunoprecipitated DNA is subsequently used for quantitative PCR to interrogate the abundance and localization of histone post-translational modifications throughout the genome.
Other articles by Erin M. Green on PubMed
Choose Your Own Adventure: The Role of Histone Modifications in Yeast Cell Fate Journal of Molecular Biology. | Pubmed ID: 27769718 When yeast cells are challenged by a fluctuating environment, signaling networks activate differentiation programs that promote their individual or collective survival. These programs include the initiation of meiotic sporulation, the formation of filamentous growth structures, and the activation of programmed cell death pathways. The establishment and maintenance of these distinct cell fates are driven by massive gene expression programs that promote the necessary changes in morphology and physiology. While these genomic reprogramming events depend on a specialized network of transcription factors, a diverse set of chromatin regulators, including histone-modifying enzymes, chromatin remodelers, and histone variants, also play essential roles. Here, we review the broad functions of histone modifications in initiating cell fate transitions, with particular focus on their contribution to the control of expression of key genes required for the differentiation programs and chromatin reorganization that accompanies these cell fates.
The Histone Methyltransferases Set5 and Set1 Have Overlapping Functions in Gene Silencing and Telomere Maintenance Epigenetics. | Pubmed ID: 27911222 Genes adjacent to telomeres are subject to transcriptional repression mediated by an integrated set of chromatin modifying and remodeling factors. The telomeres of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have served as a model for dissecting the function of diverse chromatin proteins in gene silencing, and their study has revealed overlapping roles for many chromatin proteins in either promoting or antagonizing gene repression. The H3K4 methyltransferase Set1, which is commonly linked to transcriptional activation, has been implicated in telomere silencing. Set5 is an H4 K5, K8, and K12 methyltransferase that functions with Set1 to promote repression at telomeres. Here, we analyzed the combined role for Set1 and Set5 in gene expression control at native yeast telomeres. Our data reveal that Set1 and Set5 promote a Sir protein-independent mechanism of repression that may primarily rely on regulation of H4K5ac and H4K8ac at telomeric regions. Furthermore, cells lacking both Set1 and Set5 have highly correlated transcriptomes to mutants in telomere maintenance pathways and display defects in telomere stability, linking their roles in silencing to protection of telomeres. Our data therefore provide insight into and clarify potential mechanisms by which Set1 contributes to telomere silencing and shed light on the function of Set5 at telomeres.
Repression of Middle Sporulation Genes in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae by the Sum1-Rfm1-Hst1 Complex Is Maintained by Set1 and H3K4 Methylation G3 (Bethesda, Md.). | Pubmed ID: 29066473 The conserved yeast histone methyltransferase Set1 targets H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) for mono, di, and trimethylation and is linked to active transcription due to the euchromatic distribution of these methyl marks and the recruitment of Set1 during transcription. However, loss of Set1 results in increased expression of multiple classes of genes, including genes adjacent to telomeres and middle sporulation genes, which are repressed under normal growth conditions because they function in meiotic progression and spore formation. The mechanisms underlying Set1-mediated gene repression are varied, and still unclear in some cases, although repression has been linked to both direct and indirect action of Set1, associated with noncoding transcription, and is often dependent on the H3K4me2 mark. We show that Set1, and particularly the H3K4me2 mark, are implicated in repression of a subset of middle sporulation genes during vegetative growth. In the absence of Set1, there is loss of the DNA-binding transcriptional regulator Sum1 and the associated histone deacetylase Hst1 from chromatin in a locus-specific manner. This is linked to increased H4K5ac at these loci and aberrant middle gene expression. These data indicate that, in addition to DNA sequence, histone modification status also contributes to proper localization of Sum1 Our results also show that the role for Set1 in middle gene expression control diverges as cells receive signals to undergo meiosis. Overall, this work dissects an unexplored role for Set1 in gene-specific repression, and provides important insights into a new mechanism associated with the control of gene expression linked to meiotic differentiation.