In JoVE (1)

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Articles by Freyja D. James in JoVE

 JoVE Medicine

Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic Clamps in Conscious, Unrestrained Mice

1Diabetes and Obesity Research Center, Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute at Lake Nona, 2Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, 3Vanderbilt Mouse Metabolic Phenotyping Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, 4Department of Pediatrics and Cellular and Integrative Physiology, Indiana University School of Medicine


JoVE 3188

Other articles by Freyja D. James on PubMed

Transporter-mediated Absorption is the Primary Route of Entry and is Required for Passive Absorption of Intestinal Glucose into the Blood of Conscious Dogs

The Journal of Nutrition. Jul, 2002  |  Pubmed ID: 12097672

To determine the contributions of transporter-mediated and passive absorption during an intraduodenal glucose infusion in a large animal model, six mongrel dogs had sampling catheters (portal vein, femoral artery, duodenum), infusion catheters (vena cava, duodenum) and a portal vein flow probe implanted 17 d before an experiment. Protocols consisted of a basal (-30 to 0 min) and an experimental (0-90 min) period. An intraduodenal glucose infusion of 44 micromol/(kg. min) was initiated at t = 0 min. At t = 20 and 80 min, 3-O-[3H]methylglucose and L-[14C]glucose (L-Glc) were injected intraduodenally. Phloridzin, an inhibitor of the Na+/K+ ATP-dependent transporter (SGLT1), was infused from t = 60 to 90 min in the presence of a peripheral isoglycemic clamp. Net gut glucose output was 21.1 +/- 3.0 micromol/(kg. min) from t = 0 to 60 min. Transporter-mediated glucose absorption was calculated using three approaches, which involved either direct measurements or indirect estimates of duodenal glucose analog radioactivities, to account for the assumptions and difficulties inherent to duodenal sampling. Values were essentially the same regardless of calculations used because transporter-mediated absorption was 89 +/- 1%, 90 +/- 2% and 91 +/- 2% of net gut glucose output. Phloridzin-induced inhibition of transporter-mediated absorption completely abolished passive absorption of L-Glc. We conclude that in dogs, transporter-mediated glucose absorption constitutes the vast majority of glucose absorbed from the gut and is required for passive glucose absorption. The method described here is applicable to investigation of the mechanisms of gut glucose absorption under a variety of nutritional, physiologic and pathophysiologic conditions.

Prior Exercise Enhances Passive Absorption of Intraduodenal Glucose

Journal of Applied Physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985). Sep, 2003  |  Pubmed ID: 12740315

The purpose of this study was to assess whether a prior bout of exercise enhances passive gut glucose absorption. Mongrel dogs had sampling catheters, infusion catheters, and a portal vein flow probe implanted 17 days before an experiment. Protocols consisted of either 150 min of exercise (n = 8) or rest (n = 7) followed by basal (-30 to 0 min) and a primed (150 mg/kg) intraduodenal glucose infusion [8.0 mg x kg-1x min-1, time (t) = 0-90 min] periods. 3-O-[3H]methylglucose (absorbed actively, facilitatively, and passively) and l-[14C]glucose (absorbed passively) were injected into the duodenum at t = 20 and 80 min. Phloridzin, an inhibitor of the active sodium glucose cotransporter-1 (SGLT-1), was infused (0.1 mg x kg-1 x min-1) into the duodenum from t = 60-90 min with a peripheral venous isoglycemic clamp. Duodenal, arterial, and portal vein samples were taken every 10 min during the glucose infusion, as well as every minute after each tracer bolus injection. Net gut glucose output in exercised dogs increased compared with that in the sedentary group (5.34 +/- 0.47 and 4.02 +/- 0.53 mg x kg-1x min-1). Passive gut glucose absorption increased approximately 100% after exercise (0.93 +/- 0.06 and 0.45 +/- 0.07 mg x kg-1 x min-1). Transport-mediated glucose absorption increased by approximately 20%, but the change was not significant. The infusion of phloridzin eliminated the appearance of both glucose tracers in sedentary and exercised dogs, suggesting that passive transport required SGLT-1-mediated glucose uptake. This study shows 1). that prior exercise enhances passive absorption of intraduodenal glucose into the portal vein and 2). that basal and the added passive gut glucose absorption after exercise is dependent on initial transport of glucose via SGLT-1.

Suppression of Endogenous Glucose Production by Mild Hyperinsulinemia During Exercise is Determined Predominantly by Portal Venous Insulin

Diabetes. Feb, 2004  |  Pubmed ID: 14747277

Hyperinsulinemia during exercise in people with diabetes requiring exogenous insulin is a major clinical problem. The aim of this study was to assess the significance of portal vein versus arterial insulin to hepatic effects of hyperinsulinemia during exercise. Dogs had sampling (artery, portal vein, and hepatic vein) and infusion (vena cava and portal vein) catheters and flow probes (hepatic artery and portal vein) implanted >16 days before a study. Protocols consisted of equilibration (-130 to -30 min), basal (-30 to 0 min), and treadmill exercise (0-150 min) periods. Somatostatin was infused and glucagon and insulin were replaced in the portal vein to achieve basal arterial and portal vein levels at rest and simulated levels during the first 60 min of exercise. From 60 to 150 min of exercise, the simulated insulin infusion was sustained (C; n = 7), modified to selectively create a physiologic increment in arterial insulin (Pe; n = 7), or altered to increase arterial insulin as in Pe but with a concomitant increase in portal insulin (PePo; n = 7). Euglycemic clamps were performed in all studies. Portal and arterial insulin were 15 +/- 2 and 4 +/- 1 micro U/ml (mean +/- SE of all groups), respectively, at t = 60 min in all groups. Insulin levels were unchanged for the remainder of the exercise period in C. Arterial insulin was increased from 3 +/- 1 to 14 +/- 2 micro U/ml, whereas portal insulin did not change in Pe after t = 60 min. Arterial insulin was increased from 3 +/- 1 to 15 +/- 2 micro U/ml, and portal insulin was increased from 16 +/- 3 to 33 +/- 3 micro U/ml in PePo after t = 60 min. Endogenous glucose production (R(a)) rose similarly from basal during the first 60 min of exercise in all groups (mean +/- SE of all groups was from 2.2 +/- 0.1 to 6.8 +/- 0.5 mg. kg(-1). min(-1)). The increase in R(a) was sustained for the remainder of the exercise period in C. R(a) was suppressed by approximately 40%, but only after 60 min of hyperinsulinemia, and by approximately 20% after 90 min of hyperinsulinemia in Pe. In contrast, the addition of portal venous hyperinsulinemia caused approximately 90% suppression of R(a) within 20 min and for the remainder of the experiment in PePo. Measurements of net hepatic glucose output were similar to R(a) responses in all groups. Arterial free fatty acids (FFAs), a stimulus of R(a), were increased to 1,255 +/- 258 micro mol/l in C but were only 459 +/- 67 and 312 +/- 42 micro mol/l in Pe and PePo, respectively, by 150 min of exercise. Thus, during exercise, the exquisite sensitivity of R(a) to hyperinsulinemia is due entirely to portal venous hyperinsulinemia during the first 60 min, after which peripheral hyperinsulinemia may control approximately 20-40%, possibly as a result of inhibition of the exercise-induced increase in FFA.

Hepatic Glucose Autoregulation: Responses to Small, Non-insulin-induced Changes in Arterial Glucose

American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism. Aug, 2004  |  Pubmed ID: 15053988

The purpose of this study was to determine whether the sedentary dog is able to autoregulate glucose production (R(a)) in response to non-insulin-induced changes (<20 mg/dl) in arterial glucose. Dogs had catheters implanted >16 days before study. Protocols consisted of basal (-30 to 0 min) and bilateral renal arterial phloridzin infusion (0-180 min) periods. Somatostatin was infused, and glucagon and insulin were replaced to basal levels. In one protocol (Phl +/- Glc), glucose was allowed to fall from t = 0-90 min. This was followed by a period when glucose was infused to restore euglycemia (90-150 min) and a period when glucose was allowed to fall again (150-180 min). In a second protocol (EC), glucose was infused to compensate for the renal glucose loss due to phloridzin and maintain euglycemia from t = 0-180 min. Arterial insulin, glucagon, cortisol, and catecholamines remained at basal in both protocols. In Phl +/- Glc, glucose fell by approximately 20 mg/dl by t = 90 min with phloridzin infusion. R(a) did not change from basal in Phl +/- Glc despite the fall in glucose for the first 90 min. R(a) was significantly suppressed with restoration of euglycemia from t = 90-150 min (P < 0.05) and returned to basal when glucose was allowed to fall from t = 150-180 min. R(a) did not change from basal in EC. In conclusion, the liver autoregulates R(a) in response to small changes in glucose independently of changes in pancreatic hormones at rest. However, the liver of the resting dog is more sensitive to a small increment, rather than decrement, in arterial glucose.

Portal Venous Hyperinsulinemia Does Not Stimulate Gut Glucose Absorption in the Conscious Dog

Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental. Oct, 2004  |  Pubmed ID: 15375784

The purpose of the present study was to assess whether physiological portal vein hyperinsulinemia stimulates gut glucose absorption in vivo. Chronically catheterized (femoral artery, portal vein, inferior vena cava, and proximal and distal duodenum) and instrumented (Doppler flow probe on portal vein) insulin (INS, 2 mU.kg(-1).min(-1), n = 6) or saline (SAL, n = 5) infused dogs were studied during basal (30 minutes) and experimental (90 minutes) periods. Arterial and portal vein plasma insulin were 3.3- and 3.2-fold higher, respectively, throughout the study in INS compared to SAL. An intraduodenal glucose infusion of 8 mg.kg(-1).min(-1) was initiated at t = 0 minutes. At t = 20 and 80 minutes, a bolus of 3-O-[3H]methylglucose (MG) and L-[14C]glucose (L-GLC) was injected intraduodenally. Phloridzin, an inhibitor of the Na+ -dependent glucose transporter (SGLT1), was infused from t = 60 to 90 minutes in the presence of a peripheral isoglycemic clamp. Net gut glucose output (NGGO) was 5.2 +/- 0.6 and 4.6 +/- 0.8 mg.kg(-1).min(-1) in INS and SAL, respectively, from t = 20 to 60 minutes. Transporter-mediated absorption was 87% +/- 2% of NGGO in both INS and SAL. Passive gut glucose absorption was 13% +/- 2% of NGGO in both INS and SAL. Phloridzin-induced inhibition of transporter-mediated absorption completely abolished passive absorption of L-GLC in both groups. This study shows that under physiological conditions, a portal vein insulin infusion that results in circulating hyperinsulinemia does not increase either transporter-mediated or passive absorption of an intraduodenal glucose load.

Portal Vein Caffeine Infusion Enhances Net Hepatic Glucose Uptake During a Glucose Load in Conscious Dogs

The Journal of Nutrition. Nov, 2004  |  Pubmed ID: 15514273

We determined whether intraportal caffeine infusion, at rates designed to create concentrations similar to that seen with normal dietary intake, would enhance net hepatic glucose uptake (NHGU) during a glucose load. Dogs (n = 15) were implanted with sampling and infusion catheters as well as flow probes >16 d before the studies. After a basal sampling period, dogs were administered a somatostatin infusion (0-150 min) as well as intraportal infusions of glucose [18 micromol/(kg . min)], basal glucagon [0.5 ng/(kg . min)], and insulin [8.3 pmol/(kg . min)] to establish mild hyperinsulinemia. Arterial glucose was clamped at 10 mmol/L with a peripheral glucose infusion. At 80 min, either saline (Control; n = 7) or caffeine [1.5 micromol/(kg . min); n = 8] was infused into the portal vein. Arterial insulin, glucagon, norepinephrine, and glucose did not differ between groups. In dogs infused with caffeine, NHGU was significantly higher than in controls [21.2 +/- 4.3 vs. 11.2 +/- 1.6 micromol/(kg . min)]. Caffeine increased net hepatic lactate output compared with controls [12.5 +/- 3.8 vs. 5.5 +/- 1.5 micromol/(kg . min)]. These findings indicate that physiologic circulating levels of caffeine can enhance NHGU during a glucose load, and the added glucose consumed by the liver is in part converted to lactate.

Exercise-induced Changes in Insulin and Glucagon Are Not Required for Enhanced Hepatic Glucose Uptake After Exercise but Influence the Fate of Glucose Within the Liver

Diabetes. Dec, 2004  |  Pubmed ID: 15561932

To test whether pancreatic hormonal changes that occur during exercise are necessary for the postexercise enhancement of insulin-stimulated net hepatic glucose uptake, chronically catheterized dogs were exercised on a treadmill or rested for 150 min. At the onset of exercise, somatostatin was infused into a peripheral vein, and insulin and glucagon were infused in the portal vein to maintain basal levels (EX-Basal) or simulate the response to exercise (EX-Sim). Glucose was infused as needed to maintain euglycemia during exercise. After exercise or rest, somatostatin infusion was continued in exercised dogs and initiated in dogs that had remained sedentary. In addition, basal glucagon, glucose, and insulin were infused in the portal vein for 150 min to create a hyperinsulinemic-hyperglycemic clamp in EX-Basal, EX-Sim, and sedentary dogs. Steady-state measurements were made during the final 50 min of the clamp. During exercise, net hepatic glucose output (mg x kg(-1) x min(-1)) rose in EX-Sim (7.6 +/- 2.8) but not EX-Basal (1.9 +/- 0.3) dogs. During the hyperinsulinemic-hyperglycemic clamp that followed either exercise or rest, net hepatic glucose uptake (mg x kg(-1) x min(-1)) was elevated in both EX-Basal (4.0 +/- 0.7) and EX-Sim (4.6 +/- 0.5) dogs compared with sedentary dogs (2.0 +/- 0.3). Despite this elevation in net hepatic glucose uptake after exercise, glucose incorporation into hepatic glycogen, determined using [3-3H]glucose, was not different in EX-Basal and sedentary dogs, but was 50 +/- 30% greater in EX-Sim dogs. Exercise-induced changes in insulin and glucagon, and consequent glycogen depletion, are not required for the increase in net hepatic glucose uptake after exercise but result in a greater fraction of the glucose consumed by the liver being directed to glycogen.

5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribofuranoside Causes Acute Hepatic Insulin Resistance in Vivo

Diabetes. Feb, 2005  |  Pubmed ID: 15677492

The infusion of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR) causes a rise in tissue concentrations of the AMP analog 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribofuranotide (ZMP), which mimics an elevation of cellular AMP levels. The purpose of this work was to determine the effect of raising hepatic ZMP levels on hepatic insulin action in vivo. Dogs had sampling and infusion catheters as well as flow probes implanted 16 days before an experiment. After an 18-h fast, blood glucose was 82 +/- 1 mg/dl and basal net hepatic glucose output 1.5 +/- 0.2 mg . kg(-1) . min(-1). Dogs received portal venous glucose (3.2 mg . kg(-1) . min(-1)), peripheral venous somatostatin, and basal portal venous glucagon infusions from -90 to 60 min. Physiological hyperinsulinemia was established with a portal insulin infusion (1.2 mU . kg(-1) . min(-1)). Peripheral venous glucose infusion was used to clamp arterial blood glucose at 150 mg/dl. Starting at t = 0 min, dogs received portal venous AICAR infusions of 0, 1, or 2 mg . kg(-1) . min(-1). Net hepatic glucose uptake was 2.4 +/- 0.5 mg . kg(-1) . min(-1) (mean of all groups) before t = 0 min. In the absence of AICAR, net hepatic glucose uptake was 1.9 +/- 0.4 mg . kg(-1) . min(-1) at t = 60 min. The lower-dose AICAR infusion caused a complete suppression of net hepatic glucose uptake (-1.0 +/- 1.7 mg . kg(-1) . min(-1) at t = 60 min). The higher AICAR dose resulted in a profound shift in hepatic glucose balance from net uptake to a marked net output (-6.1 +/- 1.9 mg . kg(-1) . min(-1) at t = 60 min), even in the face of hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. These data show that elevations in hepatic ZMP concentrations, induced by portal venous AICAR infusion, cause acute hepatic insulin resistance. These findings have important implications for the targeting of AMP kinase for the treatment of insulin resistance, using AMP analogs.

Portal Venous 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribofuranoside Infusion Overcomes Hyperinsulinemic Suppression of Endogenous Glucose Output

Diabetes. Feb, 2005  |  Pubmed ID: 15677495

AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a key role in regulating metabolism, serving as a metabolic master switch. The aim of this study was to assess whether increased concentrations of the AMP analog, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribosyl-5-monophosphate, in the liver would create a metabolic response consistent with an increase in whole-body metabolic need. Dogs had sampling (artery, portal vein, hepatic vein) and infusion (vena cava, portal vein) catheters and flow probes (hepatic artery, portal vein) implanted >16 days before a study. Protocols consisted of equilibration (-130 to -30 min), basal (-30 to 0 min), and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic or -hypoglycemic clamp periods (0-150 min). At t = 0 min, somatostatin was infused and glucagon was replaced in the portal vein at basal rates. An intraportal hyperinsulinemic (2 mU . kg(-1) . min(-1)) infusion was also initiated at this time. Glucose was clamped at hypoglycemic or euglycemic levels in the presence (H-AIC, n = 6; E-AIC, n = 6) or absence (H-SAL, n = 6; E-SAL, n = 6) of a portal venous 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-ribofuranoside (AICAR) infusion (1 mg . kg(-1) . min(-1)) initiated at t = 60 min. In the presence of intraportal saline, glucose was infused into the vena cava to match glucose levels seen with intraportal AICAR. Glucagon remained fixed at basal levels, whereas insulin rose similarly in all groups. Glucose fell to 50 +/- 2 mg/dl by t = 60 min in hypoglycemic groups and remained at 105 +/- 3 mg/dl in euglycemic groups. Endogenous glucose production (R(a)) was similarly suppressed among groups in the presence of euglycemia or hypoglycemia before t = 60 min and remained suppressed in the H-SAL and E-SAL groups. However, intraportal AICAR infusion stimulated R(a) to increase by 2.5 +/- 1.0 and 3.4 +/- 0.4 mg . kg(-1) . min(-1) in the E-AIC and H-AIC groups, respectively. Arteriovenous measurement of net hepatic glucose output showed similar results. AICAR stimulated hepatic glycogen to decrease by 5 +/- 3 and 19 +/- 5 mg/g tissue (P < 0.05) in the presence of euglycemia and hypoglycemia, respectively. AICAR significantly increased net hepatic lactate output in the presence of hypoglycemia. Thus, intraportal AICAR infusion caused marked stimulation of both hepatic glucose output and net hepatic glycogenolysis, even in the presence of high levels of physiological insulin. This stimulation of glucose output by AICAR was equally marked in the presence of both euglycemia and hypoglycemia. However, hypoglycemia amplified the net hepatic glycogenolytic response to AICAR by approximately fourfold.

5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribofuranoside Renders Glucose Output by the Liver of the Dog Insensitive to a Pharmacological Increment in Insulin

American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism. Dec, 2005  |  Pubmed ID: 16046457

This study aimed to test whether stimulation of net hepatic glucose output (NHGO) by increased concentrations of the AMP analog, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-d-ribosyl-5-monophosphate, can be suppressed by pharmacological insulin levels. Dogs had sampling (artery, portal vein, hepatic vein) and infusion (vena cava, portal vein) catheters and flow probes (hepatic artery, portal vein) implanted >16 days before study. Protocols consisted of equilibration (-130 to -30 min), basal (-30 to 0 min), and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic (0-150 min) periods. At time (t) = 0 min, somatostatin was infused, and basal glucagon was replaced via the portal vein. Insulin was infused in the portal vein at either 2 (INS2) or 5 (INS5) mU.kg(-1).min(-1). At t = 60 min, 1 mg.kg(-1).min(-1) portal venous 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR) infusion was initiated. Arterial insulin rose approximately 9- and approximately 27-fold in INS2 and INS5, respectively. Glucagon, catecholamines, and cortisol did not change throughout the study. NHGO was completely suppressed before t = 60 min. Intraportal AICAR stimulated NHGO by 1.9 +/- 0.5 and 2.0 +/- 0.5 mg.kg(-1).min(-1) in INS2 and INS5, respectively. AICAR stimulated tracer-determined endogenous glucose production similarly in both groups. Intraportal AICAR infusion significantly increased hepatic acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC, Ser(79)) phosphorylation in INS2. Hepatic ACC (Ser(79)) phosphorylation, however, was not increased in INS5. Thus intraportal AICAR infusion renders hepatic glucose output insensitive to pharmacological insulin. The effectiveness of AICAR in countering the suppressive effect of pharmacological insulin on NHGO occurs even though AICAR-stimulated ACC phosphorylation is completely blocked.

Energy State of the Liver During Short-term and Exhaustive Exercise in C57BL/6J Mice

American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism. Mar, 2006  |  Pubmed ID: 16219665

A portal venous 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribofuranoside infusion that results in hepatic 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribosyl-5-monophosphate (ZMP) concentrations of approximately 4 micromol/g liver increases hepatic glycogenolysis and glucose output. ZMP is an AMP analog that mimics the regulatory actions of this nucleotide. The aim of this study was to measure hepatic AMP concentrations in response to increasing energy requirements to test the hypothesis that AMP achieves concentrations during exercise, consistent with a role in stimulation of hepatic glucose metabolism. Male C57BL/6J mice (27.4+/- 0.4 g) were subjected to 35 min of rest [sedentary (SED), n=8], underwent short-term (ST, 35 min) moderate (20 m/min, 5% grade) exercise (n=8), or underwent treadmill exercise under similar conditions but until exhaustion (EXH, n=8). Hepatic AMP concentrations were 0.82+/- 0.05, 1.17+/- 0.11, and 2.52+/- 0.16 micromol/g liver in SED, ST, and EXH mice, respectively (P< 0.05). Hepatic energy charge was 0.66+/- 0.01, 0.58+/- 0.02, and 0.33+/- 0.22 in SED, ST, and EXH mice, respectively (P< 0.05). Hepatic glycogen was 11.6+/- 1.0, 8.8+/- 2.2, and 0.0+/- 0.1 mg/g liver in SED, ST, and EXH mice, respectively (P< 0.05). Hepatic AMPK (Thr(172)) phosphorylation was 1.00+/- 0.14, 1.96+/- 0.16, and 7.44+/- 0.63 arbitrary units in SED, ST, and EXH mice, respectively (P< 0.05). Thus exercise increases hepatic AMP concentrations. These data suggest that the liver is highly sensitive to metabolic demands, as evidenced by dramatic changes in cellular energy indicators (AMP) and sensors thereof (AMP-activated protein kinase). In conclusion, AMP is sensitively regulated, consistent with it having an important role in hepatic metabolism.

The Glucagon-like Peptide-1 Receptor Regulates Endogenous Glucose Production and Muscle Glucose Uptake Independent of Its Incretin Action

Endocrinology. Mar, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19008308

Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) diminishes postmeal glucose excursions by enhancing insulin secretion via activation of the beta-cell GLP-1 receptor (Glp1r). GLP-1 may also control glucose levels through mechanisms that are independent of this incretin effect. The hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (insulin clamp) and exercise were used to examine the incretin-independent glucoregulatory properties of the Glp1r because both perturbations stimulate glucose flux independent of insulin secretion. Chow-fed mice with a functional disruption of the Glp1r (Glp1r(-/-)) were compared with wild-type littermates (Glp1r(+/+)). Studies were performed on 5-h-fasted mice implanted with arterial and venous catheters for sampling and infusions, respectively. During insulin clamps, [3-(3)H]glucose and 2[(14)C]deoxyglucose were used to determine whole-body glucose turnover and glucose metabolic index (R(g)), an indicator of glucose uptake. R(g) in sedentary and treadmill exercised mice was determined using 2[(3)H]deoxyglucose. Glp1r(-/-) mice exhibited increased glucose disappearance, muscle R(g), and muscle glycogen levels during insulin clamps. This was not associated with enhanced muscle insulin signaling. Glp1r(-/-) mice exhibited impaired suppression of endogenous glucose production and hepatic glycogen accumulation during insulin clamps. This was associated with impaired liver insulin signaling. Glp1r(-/-) mice became significantly hyperglycemic during exercise. Muscle R(g) was normal in exercised Glp1r(-/-) mice, suggesting that hyperglycemia resulted from an added drive to stimulate glucose production. Muscle AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation was higher in exercised Glp1r(-/-) mice. This was associated with increased relative exercise intensity and decreased exercise endurance. In conclusion, these results show that the endogenous Glp1r regulates hepatic and muscle glucose flux independent of its ability to enhance insulin secretion.

Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase is Central to Skeletal Muscle Metabolic Regulation and Enzymatic Signaling During Exercise in Vivo

American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology. May, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 20200137

Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is associated with a number of physiological functions involved in the regulation of metabolism; however, the functional role of eNOS is poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that eNOS is critical to muscle cell signaling and fuel usage during exercise in vivo, using 16-wk-old catheterized (carotid artery and jugular vein) C57BL/6J mice with wild-type (WT), partial (+/-), or no expression (-/-) of eNOS. Quantitative reductions in eNOS expression ( approximately 40%) elicited many of the phenotypic effects observed in enos(-/-) mice under fasted, sedentary conditions, with expression of oxidative phosphorylation complexes I to V and ATP levels being decreased, and total NOS activity and Ca(2+)/CaM kinase II Thr(286) phosphorylation being increased in skeletal muscle. Despite these alterations, exercise tolerance was markedly impaired in enos(-/-) mice during an acute 30-min bout of exercise. An eNOS-dependent effect was observed with regard to AMP-activated protein kinase signaling and muscle perfusion. Muscle glucose and long-chain fatty acid uptake, and hepatic and skeletal muscle glycogenolysis during the exercise bout was markedly accelerated in enos(-/-) mice compared with enos(+/-) and WT mice. Correspondingly, enos(-/-) mice exhibited hypoglycemia during exercise. Thus, the ablation of eNOS alters a number of physiological processes that result in impaired exercise capacity in vivo. The finding that a partial reduction in eNOS expression is sufficient to induce many of the changes associated with ablation of eNOS has implications for chronic metabolic diseases, such as obesity and insulin resistance, which are associated with reduced eNOS expression.

Glucagon-like Peptide-1 Receptor Knockout Mice Are Protected from High-fat Diet-induced Insulin Resistance

Endocrinology. Oct, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 20685876

Glucagon-like peptide-1 augments nutrient-stimulated insulin secretion. Chow-fed mice lacking the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (Glp1r) exhibit enhanced insulin-stimulated muscle glucose uptake but impaired suppression of endogenous glucose appearance (endoRa). This proposes a novel role for the Glp1r to regulate the balance of glucose disposal in muscle and liver by modulating insulin action. Whether this is maintained in an insulin-resistant state is unknown. The present studies tested the hypothesis that disruption of Glp1r expression overcomes high-fat (HF) diet-induced muscle insulin resistance and exacerbates HF diet-induced hepatic insulin resistance. Mice with a functional disruption of the Glp1r (Glp1r-/-) were compared with wild-type littermates (Glp1r+/+) after 12 wk on a regular chow diet or a HF diet. Arterial and venous catheters were implanted for sampling and infusions. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps were performed on weight-matched male mice. [3-(3)H]glucose was used to determine glucose turnover, and 2[14C]deoxyglucose was used to measure the glucose metabolic index, an indicator of glucose uptake. Glp1r-/- mice exhibited increased glucose disappearance and muscle glucose metabolic index on either diet. This was associated with enhanced activation of muscle Akt and AMP-activated protein kinase and reduced muscle triglycerides in HF-fed Glp1r-/- mice. Chow-fed Glp1r-/- mice exhibited impaired suppression of endoRa and hepatic insulin signaling. In contrast, HF-fed Glp1r-/- mice exhibited improved suppression of endoRa and hepatic Akt activation. This was associated with decreased hepatic triglycerides and impaired activation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1. These results show that mice lacking the Glp1r are protected from HF diet-induced muscle and hepatic insulin resistance independent of effects on total fat mass.

Diet-induced Muscle Insulin Resistance is Associated with Extracellular Matrix Remodeling and Interaction with Integrin Alpha2beta1 in Mice

Diabetes. Feb, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 21270253

The hypothesis that high-fat (HF) feeding causes skeletal muscle extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling in C57BL/6J mice and that this remodeling contributes to diet-induced muscle insulin resistance (IR) through the collagen receptor integrin α(2)β(1) was tested.

Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation for the Infarcted Heart: a Role in Minimizing Abnormalities in Cardiac-specific Energy Metabolism

American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism. Jan, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 21971524

Intense interest has been focused on cell-based therapy for the infarcted heart given that stem cells have exhibited the ability to reduce infarct size and mitigate cardiac dysfunction. Despite this, it is unknown whether mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy can prevent metabolic remodeling following a myocardial infarction (MI). This study examines the ability of MSCs to rescue the infarcted heart from perturbed substrate uptake in vivo. C57BL/6 mice underwent chronic ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery to induce a MI. Echocardiography was performed on conscious mice at baseline as well as 7 and 23 days post-MI. Twenty-eight days following the ligation procedure, hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps assessed in vivo insulin sensitivity. Isotopic tracer administration evaluated whole body, peripheral tissue, and cardiac-specific glucose and fatty acid utilization. To gain insight into the mechanisms by which MSCs modulate metabolism, mitochondrial function was assessed by high-resolution respirometry using permeabilized cardiac fibers. Data show that MSC transplantation preserves insulin-stimulated fatty acid uptake in the peri-infarct region (4.25 ± 0.64 vs. 2.57 ± 0.34 vs. 3.89 ± 0.54 μmol·100 g(-1)·min(-1), SHAM vs. MI + PBS vs. MI + MSC; P < 0.05) and prevents increases in glucose uptake in the remote left ventricle (3.11 ± 0.43 vs. 3.81 ± 0.79 vs. 6.36 ± 1.08 μmol·100 g(-1)·min(-1), SHAM vs. MI + PBS vs. MI + MSC; P < 0.05). This was associated with an enhanced efficiency of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation with a respiratory control ratio of 3.36 ± 0.18 in MSC-treated cardiac fibers vs. 2.57 ± 0.14 in the infarct-only fibers (P < 0.05). In conclusion, MSC therapy exhibits the potential to rescue the heart from metabolic aberrations following a MI. Restoration of metabolic flexibility is important given the metabolic demands of the heart and the role of energetics in the progression to heart failure.

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