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Articles by Galya Orr in JoVE
Electroporation of Functional Bacterial Effectors into Mammalian Cells Ryan L. Sontag1, Cosmin Mihai2, Galya Orr2, Alexei Savchenko3, Tatiana Skarina3, Hong Cui3, John R. Cort1, Joshua N. Adkins1, Roslyn N. Brown4 1Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 2Environmental Molecular Science Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 3Structural Proteomics Group, Ontario Center for Structural Proteomics, University of Toronto, 4Center for Bioproducts and Bioenergy, Washington State University Electroporation was used to insert purified bacterial virulence effector proteins directly into living eukaryotic cells. Protein localization was monitored by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy. This method allows for studies on trafficking, function, and protein-protein interactions using active exogenous proteins, avoiding the need for heterologous expression in eukaryotic cells.