Articles by Gary H. Wikfors in JoVE
Design and Use of an Apparatus for Quantifying Bivalve Suspension Feeding at Sea Eve Galimany1, Julie M. Rose1, Mark S. Dixon1, Robert Alix1, Yaqin Li1, Gary H. Wikfors1 1Northeast Fisheries Science Center (NEFSC), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Fisheries Service A flow-through device for using the biodeposition method to quantify filtration and feeding behavior of bivalve mollusks was modified for shipboard use. A two-dimensional gimbal table built around the device isolates the apparatus from boat motion, thereby allowing the accurate quantification of bivalve filtration variables at offshore shellfish aquaculture sites.
Other articles by Gary H. Wikfors on PubMed
Bioconversion of (13)C-labeled Microalgal Phytosterols to Cholesterol by the Northern Bay Scallop, Argopecten Irradians Irradians Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology. Feb, 2016 | Pubmed ID: 26577022 Bivalve mollusks lack de novo cholesterol biosynthesis capabilities and therefore rely upon dietary sources of sterols for rapid growth. Microalgae that constitute the main source of nutrition for suspension-feeding bivalves contain a diverse array of phytosterols, in most cases lacking cholesterol. Rapid growth of bivalves on microalgal diets with no cholesterol implies that some phytosterols can satisfy the dietary requirement for cholesterol through metabolic conversion to cholesterol, but such metabolic pathways have not been rigorously demonstrated. In the present study, stable isotope-labeled phytosterols were used to supplement a unialgal diet of Rhodomonas sp. and their biological transformation to cholesterol within scallop tissues was determined using (13)C-NMR spectroscopy. Scallops efficiently dealkylated ∆(5) C29 (24-ethyl) sterols to cholesterol, and the only C28 sterol that was dealkylated efficiently possessed the 24(28)-double bond. Non-metabolized dietary phytosterols accumulated in the soft tissues. Observed formation of ∆(5,7) sterols (provitamin D) from ∆(5) sterols may represent initiation of steroid hormone (possibly ecdysone) biosynthesis. These findings provide a key component necessary for formulation of nutritionally complete microalgal diets for hatchery production of seed for molluscan aquaculture.
Ocean Acidification Affects Hemocyte Physiology in the Tanner Crab (Chionoecetes Bairdi) PloS One. 2016 | Pubmed ID: 26859148 We used flow cytometry to determine if there would be a difference in hematology, selected immune functions, and hemocyte pH (pHi), under two different, future ocean acidification scenarios (pH = 7.50, 7.80) compared to current conditions (pH = 8.09) for Chionoecetes bairdi, Tanner crab. Hemocytes were analyzed after adult Tanner crabs were held for two years under continuous exposure to acidified ocean water. Total counts of hemocytes did not vary among control and experimental treatments; however, there were significantly greater number of dead, circulating hemocytes in crabs held at the lowest pH treatment. Phagocytosis of fluorescent microbeads by hemocytes was greatest at the lowest pH treatment. These results suggest that hemocytes were dying, likely by apoptosis, at a rate faster than upregulated phagocytosis was able to remove moribund cells from circulation at the lowest pH. Crab hemolymph pH (pHe) averaged 8.09 and did not vary among pH treatments. There was no significant difference in internal pH (pHi) within hyalinocytes among pH treatments and the mean pHi (7.26) was lower than the mean pHe. In contrast, there were significant differences among treatments in pHi of the semi-granular+granular cells. Control crabs had the highest mean semi-granular+granular pHi compared to the lowest pH treatment. As physiological hemocyte functions changed from ambient conditions, interactions with the number of eggs in the second clutch, percentage of viable eggs, and calcium concentration in the adult crab shell was observed. This suggested that the energetic costs of responding to ocean acidification and maintaining defense mechanisms in Tanner crab may divert energy from other physiological processes, such as reproduction.
Acute Exposure to TiO Nanoparticles Produces Minimal Apparent Effects on Oyster, Crassostrea Virginica (Gmelin), Hemocytes Marine Pollution Bulletin. Feb, 2018 | Pubmed ID: 29475691 The response of oyster (Crassostrea virginica) hemocytes was studied following exposure to anatase nanoparticles (ca. 7.4nm), surface-coated rutile nanocomposites (UV-Titan M212, ca. 86nm) and bulk titanium dioxide (TiO) particles (anatase and rutile crystalline forms; 0.4-0.5μm). Hemocytes were collected from oysters and exposed to one of the four particle types at concentrations of 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0mg/L under dark and environmentally-relevant light conditions for periods of two and four hours. Hemocyte mortality, phagocytosis, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were then evaluated using flow-cytometric assays. Bulk and nanoparticulate TiO had little effect on viability of oyster hemocytes or on production of ROS. Significant changes in phagocytosis occurred after exposure to anatase nanoparticles for 4h under dark conditions, and UV-Titan for 2h under light conditions. Results demonstrate that TiO particles (bulk or nanoscale) produce minimal effects on hemocyte biomarkers examined following acute, in vitro exposures.