In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (8)
- FASEB Journal : Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
- Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
- Applied and Environmental Microbiology
- ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
- Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.)
- Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
- Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.)
Articles by Gatikrushna Singh in JoVE
Isolamento de complexos de ARN-proteína a partir de células Cognate usando eluição Oligonucleotide-directed Gatikrushna Singh*1, Sarah M. Fritz*2, Arnaz Ranji2, Deepali Singh3, Kathleen Boris-Lawrie1,2 1Department of Veterinary & Biomedical Sciences, University of Minnesota, 2Department of Veterinary Biosciences, Ohio State University, 3School of Biotechnology, Gautam Buddha University
Other articles by Gatikrushna Singh on PubMed
Suppression of RNA Silencing by Flock House Virus B2 Protein is Mediated Through Its Interaction with the PAZ Domain of Dicer FASEB Journal : Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. Jun, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19193719 RNA silencing is a conserved pathway that functions as an antiviral mechanism. The majority of viruses encode silencing suppressors that interfere with siRNA- and miRNA-guided silencing pathways. The insect flock house virus B2 protein (FHVB2) functions as an RNAi silencing suppressor that inhibits siRNA biogenesis. Here, we describe the generation of a GFP silent sensor line (Sf21) and a GFP sensor line expressing FHVB2 to study RNAi suppression mechanisms. Overexpression of FHVB2 resulted in suppression of GFP-RNAi and resumption of GFP expression. Protein fractionation studies with FHVB2-transfected cells showed that FHVB2 associates with a high-molecular-weight complex of Dicer and dsRNA/siRNAs. Yeast two-hybrid and pulldown assays revealed an interaction between FHVB2 and Drosophila Dicer proteins that appeared to involve PAZ domains. To map the FHVB2 domains interacting with Dicer, we used a 17-residue C-terminal deletion mutant. RNAi suppression was reversed in cells transfected with the FHVB2 mutant as revealed by loss of GFP. Additional yeast two-hybrid and in vitro pulldown assays confirmed that the C-terminal region of FHVB2 was involved in the interaction with the PAZ domains of Dicers. These results thus reveal a novel interaction between FHVB2 and Dicer that leads to suppression of siRNA biogenesis.
Systematic Deletion and Site-directed Mutagenesis of FHVB2 Establish the Role of C-terminal Amino Acid Residues in RNAi Suppression Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. Jul, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20599719 Viruses and siRNA/miRNA machinery of the host cell interact in diverse ways with the virus encoded RNAi suppressor proteins. These interactions have implications on the replication and pathogenicity of the virus and also on the immune response of the host. Suppressor protein B2 of insect Flock House Virus (FHVB2), has been shown to mediate RNAi suppression via N-terminal region by directly binding to dsRNA. We have previously shown that FHVB2 protein also interacts with host Dicer protein via its PAZ domain. In the present study, we performed systematic mutagenesis studies to map the FHVB2 regions involved in mediating suppression of RNAi. Progressive deletion of 17 amino acids from N- and C-terminii of FHVB2 resulted in cumulative decrease in RNAi suppression activity of FHVB2. The deletion of 17 amino acids from the C-terminus resulted in more reduction in RNAi suppression in comparison to the N-terminal deletions. Subsequently, we generated 17 successive point mutants of FHVB2 C-terminus and evaluated the RNAi suppression activity for each of the point mutants. Each point mutation resulted in a significant reduction in RNAi suppression activity of FHVB2. These results provide evidence for the role of C-terminal of FHVB2 in RNAi suppression.
Interaction of Bacillus Thuringiensis Vegetative Insecticidal Protein with Ribosomal S2 Protein Triggers Larvicidal Activity in Spodoptera Frugiperda Applied and Environmental Microbiology. Nov, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20833785 Vegetative insecticidal protein (Vip3A) is synthesized as an extracellular insecticidal toxin by certain strains of Bacillus thuringiensis. Vip3A is active against several lepidopteran pests of crops. Polyphagous pest, Spodoptera frugiperda, and its cell line Sf21 are sensitive for lyses to Vip3A. Screening of cDNA library prepared from Sf21 cells through yeast two-hybrid system with Vip3A as bait identified ribosomal protein S2 as a toxicity-mediating interacting partner protein. The Vip3A-ribosomal-S2 protein interaction was validated by in vitro pulldown assays and by RNA interference-induced knockdown experiments. Knockdown of expression of S2 protein in Sf21 cells resulted in reduced toxicity of the Vip3A protein. These observations were further extended to adult fifth-instar larvae of Spodoptera litura. Knockdown of S2 expression by injecting corresponding double-stranded RNA resulted in reduced mortality of larvae to Vip3A toxin. Intracellular visualization of S2 protein and Vip3A through confocal microscopy revealed their interaction and localization in cytoplasm and surface of Sf21 cells.
SAR and Lead Optimization of an HIV-1 Vif-APOBEC3G Axis Inhibitor ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters. Jun, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 24533175 We describe structure-activity relationship and optimization studies of RN-18, an HIV-1 Vif-APOBEC3G axis inhibitor. Targeted modifications of RN-18 ring-C, ring-B, ring-A, bridge A-B, and bridge B-C were performed to identify the crucial structural features, which generated new inhibitors with similar (4g and 4i) and improved (5, 8b, and 11) activities. Two potent water-soluble RN-18 analogues, 17 and 19, are also disclosed, and we describe the results of pharmacological studies with compound 19. The findings described here will be useful in the development of more potent Vif inhibitors and in the design of probes to identify the target protein of RN-18 and its analogues.
HIV-1 and Two Avian Retroviral 5' Untranslated Regions Bind Orthologous Human and Chicken RNA Binding Proteins Virology. Dec, 2015 | Pubmed ID: 26584240 Essential host cofactors in retrovirus replication bind cis-acting sequences in the 5'untranslated region (UTR). Although host RBPs are crucial to all aspects of virus biology, elucidating their roles in replication remains a challenge to the field. Here RNA affinity-coupled-proteomics generated a comprehensive, unbiased inventory of human and avian RNA binding proteins (RBPs) co-isolating with 5'UTRs of HIV-1, spleen necrosis virus and Rous sarcoma virus. Applying stringent biochemical and statistical criteria, we identified 185 RBP; 122 were previously implicated in retrovirus biology and 63 are new to the 5'UTR proteome. RNA electrophoretic mobility assays investigated paralogs present in the common ancestor of vertebrates and one hnRNP was identified as a central node to the biological process-anchored networks of HIV-1, SNV, and RSV 5' UTR-proteomes. This comprehensive view of the host constituents of retroviral RNPs is broadly applicable to investigation of viral replication and antiviral response in both human and avian cell lineages.
Isolation of Cognate Cellular and Viral Ribonucleoprotein Complexes of HIV-1 RNA Applicable to Proteomic Discovery and Molecular Investigations Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.). 2016 | Pubmed ID: 26714709 All decisions affecting the life cycle of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) RNA are executed by ribonucleoprotein complexes (RNPs). HIV-1 RNA cycles through a progression of host RNPs composed of RNA-binding proteins regulating all stages of synthesis, processing, nuclear transport, translation, decay, and co-localization with assembling virions. RNA affinity chromatography is a versatile method to identify RNA-binding proteins to investigate the molecular basis of viral and cellular posttranscriptional control of gene expression. The bait is a HIV-1 RNA motif immobilized on a solid support, typically magnetic or Sepharose beads. The prey is pre-formed RNPs admixed in lysate from cells or concentrated virus particles. The methodology distinguishes high-affinity RNA-protein interactions from low-affinity complexes by increases in ionic strength during progressive elution cycles. Here, we describe RNA affinity chromatography of the 5' untranslated region of HIV-1, obtaining mixtures of high-affinity RNA binding proteins suitable for mass spectrometry and proteome identification.
1,2,3-Triazoles As Amide Bioisosteres: Discovery of a New Class of Potent HIV-1 Vif Antagonists Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. Aug, 2016 | Pubmed ID: 27509004 RN-18 based viral infectivity factor (Vif), Vif antagonists reduce viral infectivity by rescuing APOBEC3G (A3G) expression and enhancing A3G-dependent Vif degradation. Replacement of amide functionality in RN-18 (IC50 = 6 μM) by isosteric heterocycles resulted in the discovery of a 1,2,3-trizole, 1d (IC50 = 1.2 μM). We identified several potent HIV-1 inhibitors from a 1d based library including 5ax (IC50 = 0.01 μM), 5bx (0.2 μM), 2ey (0.4 μM), 5ey (0.6 μM), and 6bx (0.2 μM).
RNAi Screening in Spodoptera Frugiperda Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.). 2016 | Pubmed ID: 27581295 RNA interference is a potent and precise reverse genetic approach to carryout large-scale functional genomic studies in a given organism. During the past decade, RNAi has also emerged as an important investigative tool to understand the process of viral pathogenesis. Our laboratory has successfully generated transgenic reporter and RNAi sensor line of Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf21) cells and developed a reversal of silencing assay via siRNA or shRNA guided screening to investigate RNAi factors or viral pathogenic factors with extraordinary fidelity. Here we describe empirical approaches and conceptual understanding to execute successful RNAi screening in Spodoptera frugiperda 21-cell line.