In JoVE (3)

Other Publications (7)

Articles by Georg J. Furtmüller in JoVE

 JoVE Medicine

A Novel Microsurgical Model for Heterotopic, En Bloc Chest Wall, Thymus, and Heart Transplantation in Mice

1Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 2Burn and Complex Wound Center, 3Section of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Chicago Medical Center, 4Division of Plastic, Reconstructive, and Maxillofacial Surgery, R Adams Cowley Shock Trauma Center, 5Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 6Vascularized Composite Allotransplantation (VCA) Lab, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine

JoVE 53442

 JoVE Medicine

Orthotopic Hind Limb Transplantation in the Mouse

1Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Vascularized Composite Allotransplantation (VCA) Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 2Department of Visceral, Transplant and Thoracic Surgery, Innsbruck Medical University, 3Center for Vascularized Composite Allotransplantation, Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and School of Medicine, 4Department of General, Visceral and Transplant Surgery, Charite Berlin

JoVE 53483

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Murine Full-thickness Skin Transplantation

1Sidney-Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 2Department of Liver and Transplantation Surgery, Chang-Gung Transplantation Institute, Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang-Gung University College of Medicine, 3Vascularized Composite Allotransplantation Laboratory, Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine

JoVE 55105

Other articles by Georg J. Furtmüller on PubMed

Near-infrared Lymphography As a Minimally Invasive Modality for Imaging Lymphatic Reconstitution in a Rat Orthotopic Hind Limb Transplantation Model

Transplant International : Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation. Sep, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23879384

Wider application of vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA) is limited by the need for chronic immunosuppression. Recent data suggest that the lymphatic system plays an important role in mediating rejection. This study used near-infrared (NIR) lymphography to describe lymphatic reconstitution in a rat VCA model. Syngeneic (Lewis-Lewis) and allogeneic (Brown Norway-Lewis) rat orthotopic hind limb transplants were performed without immunosuppression. Animals were imaged pre- and postoperatively using indocyanine green (ICG) lymphography. Images were collected using an NIR imaging system. Co-localization was achieved through use of an acrylic paint/hydrogen peroxide mixture. In all transplants, ICG first crossed graft suture lines on postoperative day (POD) 5. Clinical signs of rejection also appeared on POD 5 in allogeneic transplants, with most exhibiting Grade 3 rejection by POD 6. Injection of an acrylic paint/hydrogen peroxide mixture on POD 5 confirmed the existence of continuous lymphatic vessels crossing the suture line and draining into the inguinal lymph node. NIR lymphography is a minimally invasive imaging modality that can be used to study lymphatic vessels in a rat VCA model. In allogeneic transplants, lymphatic reconstitution correlated with clinical rejection. Lymphatic reconstitution may represent an early target for immunomodulation.

Pudendal Nerve 3-dimensional Illustration Gives Insight into Surgical Approaches

Annals of Plastic Surgery. Dec, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 24667877

The pudendal nerve is located topographically in areas in which plastic surgeon reconstruct the penis, the vagina, the perineum, and the rectum. This nerve is at risk for either compression or direct injury with neuroma formation from obstetrical, urogynecologic, and rectal surgery as well as pelvic fracture and blunt trauma. The purpose of this study was to create a 3-dimensional representation based on magnetic resonance imaging of the pelvis supplemented with new anatomic dissections in men and women to delineate the location of the pudendal nerve and its branches, providing educational information both for surgical intervention and patient education. The results of this study demonstrated that most often there are at least 2, not 1, "pudendal nerves trunks" as they leave the pelvis to transverse the sacrotuberous ligament, and that there are most often 2, not 1, exit(s) from Alcock canal, one for the dorsal branch and one for the perineal branch of the pudendal nerve.

MEMS-based Handheld Fourier Domain Doppler Optical Coherence Tomography for Intraoperative Microvascular Anastomosis Imaging

PloS One. 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 25474742

To demonstrate the feasibility of a miniature handheld optical coherence tomography (OCT) imager for real time intraoperative vascular patency evaluation in the setting of super-microsurgical vessel anastomosis.

Exploring Cell-based Tolerance Strategies for Hand and Face Transplantation

Expert Review of Clinical Immunology. Nov, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 26289376

Broader clinical application of reconstructive hand and face transplantation is hindered by the need for lifelong immunosuppression for allograft maintenance. In this review, we summarize various cell-based approaches to tolerance induction currently under investigation in both clinical and pre-clinical models to alleviate the need for chronic immunosuppression. These include strategies to induce mixed hematopoietic chimerism, therapy with T and B regulatory cells, regulatory macrophages, tolerogenic dendritic cells, and mesenchymal stem cells. The vascularized, intragraft bone components inherent to reconstructive transplants serve as a continuous source of donor-derived hematopoietic cells, and make hand and face transplants uniquely well suited for cell-based approaches to tolerance that may ultimately tilt the risk-benefit balance for these life-changing, but not life-saving, procedures.

Preventing Allograft Rejection by Targeting Immune Metabolism

Cell Reports. Oct, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 26489460

Upon antigen recognition and co-stimulation, T lymphocytes upregulate the metabolic machinery necessary to proliferate and sustain effector function. This metabolic reprogramming in T cells regulates T cell activation and differentiation but is not just a consequence of antigen recognition. Although such metabolic reprogramming promotes the differentiation and function of T effector cells, the differentiation of regulatory T cells employs different metabolic reprogramming. Therefore, we hypothesized that inhibition of glycolysis and glutamine metabolism might prevent graft rejection by inhibiting effector generation and function and promoting regulatory T cell generation. We devised an anti-rejection regimen involving the glycolytic inhibitor 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG), the anti-type II diabetes drug metformin, and the inhibitor of glutamine metabolism 6-diazo-5-oxo-L-norleucine (DON). Using this triple-drug regimen, we were able to prevent or delay graft rejection in fully mismatched skin and heart allograft transplantation models.

A Multiphase Transitioning Peptide Hydrogel for Suturing Ultrasmall Vessels

Nature Nanotechnology. Jan, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 26524396

Many surgeries are complicated by the need to anastomose, or reconnect, micrometre-scale vessels. Although suturing remains the gold standard for anastomosing vessels, it is difficult to place sutures correctly through collapsed lumen, making the procedure prone to failure. Here, we report a multiphase transitioning peptide hydrogel that can be injected into the lumen of vessels to facilitate suturing. The peptide, which contains a photocaged glutamic acid, forms a solid-like gel in a syringe and can be shear-thin delivered to the lumen of collapsed vessels (where it distends the vessel) and the space between two vessels (where it is used to approximate the vessel ends). Suturing is performed directly through the gel. Light is used to initiate the final gel-sol phase transition that disrupts the hydrogel network, allowing the gel to be removed and blood flow to resume. This gel adds a new tool to the armamentarium for micro- and supermicrosurgical procedures.

Mesenchymal Stem Cells Enhance Nerve Regeneration in a Rat Sciatic Nerve Repair and Hindlimb Transplant Model

Scientific Reports. Aug, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27510321

This study investigates the efficacy of local and intravenous mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) administration to augment neuroregeneration in both a sciatic nerve cut-and-repair and rat hindlimb transplant model. Bone marrow-derived MSCs were harvested and purified from Brown-Norway (BN) rats. Sciatic nerve transections and repairs were performed in three groups of Lewis (LEW) rats: negative controls (n = 4), local MSCs (epineural) injection (n = 4), and systemic MSCs (intravenous) injection (n = 4). Syngeneic (LEW-LEW) (n = 4) and allogeneic (BN-LEW) (n = 4) hindlimb transplants were performed and assessed for neuroregeneration after local or systemic MSC treatment. Rats undergoing sciatic nerve cut-and-repair and treated with either local or systemic injection of MSCs had significant improvement in the speed of recovery of compound muscle action potential amplitudes and axon counts when compared with negative controls. Similarly, rats undergoing allogeneic hindlimb transplants treated with local injection of MSCs exhibited significantly increased axon counts. Similarly, systemic MSC treatment resulted in improved nerve regeneration following allogeneic hindlimb transplants. Systemic administration had a more pronounced effect on electromotor recovery while local injection was more effective at increasing fiber counts, suggesting different targets of action. Local and systemic MSC injections significantly improve the pace and degree of nerve regeneration after nerve injury and hindlimb transplantation.

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