Articles by Gleb Bourenkov in JoVE
Microfluidic Chips for In Situ Crystal X-ray Diffraction and In Situ Dynamic Light Scattering for Serial Crystallography Yannig Gicquel*1,2, Robin Schubert*3,4,5, Svetlana Kapis3, Gleb Bourenkov6, Thomas Schneider6, Markus Perbandt3,4, Christian Betzel3,4,5, Henry N. Chapman1,2,4, Michael Heymann1,7 1Center for Free Electron Laser Science, DESY, 2Department of Physics, University of Hamburg, 3Institute for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Laboratory for Structural Biology of Infection and Inflammation, University of Hamburg, 4The Hamburg Center for Ultrafast Imaging, University of Hamburg, 5Integrated Biology Infrastructure Life-Science Facility at the European XFEL (XBI), 6European Molecular Biology Laboratory, EMBL c/o DESY, 7Department of Cellular and Molecular Biophysics, Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry This protocol describes in detail how to fabricate and operate microfluidic devices for X-ray diffraction data collection at room temperature. Additionally, it describes how to monitor protein crystallization by dynamic light scattering and how to process and analyze obtained diffraction data.
Other articles by Gleb Bourenkov on PubMed
Terahertz Radiation Induces Non-thermal Structural Changes Associated with Fröhlich Condensation in a Protein Crystal Structural Dynamics (Melville, N.Y.). | Pubmed ID: 26798828 Whether long-range quantum coherent states could exist in biological systems, and beyond low-temperature regimes where quantum physics is known to be applicable, has been the subject to debate for decades. It was proposed by Fröhlich that vibrational modes within protein molecules can order and condense into a lowest-frequency vibrational mode in a process similar to Bose-Einstein condensation, and thus that macroscopic coherence could potentially be observed in biological systems. Despite the prediction of these so-called Fröhlich condensates almost five decades ago, experimental evidence thereof has been lacking. Here, we present the first experimental observation of Fröhlich condensation in a protein structure. To that end, and to overcome the challenges associated with probing low-frequency molecular vibrations in proteins (which has hampered understanding of their role in proteins' function), we combined terahertz techniques with a highly sensitive X-ray crystallographic method to visualize low-frequency vibrational modes in the protein structure of hen-egg white lysozyme. We found that 0.4 THz electromagnetic radiation induces non-thermal changes in electron density. In particular, we observed a local increase of electron density in a long α-helix motif consistent with a subtle longitudinal compression of the helix. These observed electron density changes occur at a low absorption rate indicating that thermalization of terahertz photons happens on a micro- to milli-second time scale, which is much slower than the expected nanosecond time scale due to damping of delocalized low frequency vibrations. Our analyses show that the micro- to milli-second lifetime of the vibration can only be explained by Fröhlich condensation, a phenomenon predicted almost half a century ago, yet never experimentally confirmed.
The Inhibition Mechanism of Human 20S Proteasomes Enables Next-generation Inhibitor Design Science (New York, N.Y.). | Pubmed ID: 27493187 The proteasome is a validated target for anticancer therapy, and proteasome inhibition is employed in the clinic for the treatment of tumors and hematological malignancies. Here, we describe crystal structures of the native human 20S proteasome and its complexes with inhibitors, which either are drugs approved for cancer treatment or are in clinical trials. The structure of the native human 20S proteasome was determined at an unprecedented resolution of 1.8 angstroms. Additionally, six inhibitor-proteasome complex structures were elucidated at resolutions between 1.9 and 2.1 angstroms. Collectively, the high-resolution structures provide new insights into the catalytic mechanisms of inhibition and necessitate a revised description of the proteasome active site. Knowledge about inhibition mechanisms provides insights into peptide hydrolysis and can guide strategies for the development of next-generation proteasome-based cancer therapeutics.