Articles by Gregory P. Way in JoVE
Boldness, Aggression, and Shoaling Assays for Zebrafish Behavioral Syndromes Gregory P. Way1,2, Maura Southwell1, Scott P. McRobert1 1Department of Biology, Saint Joseph’s University, 2Genomics and Computational Biology, University of Pennsylvania This manuscript describes the setup, implementation, and analysis of boldness, aggression, and shoaling in zebrafish and testing for the presence of a behavioral syndrome. A standardized approach for behavioral quantification will allow for easier comparison across studies. Modifications to this protocol are possible as each assay can be run individually.
Other articles by Gregory P. Way on PubMed
Sex Differences in a Shoaling-boldness Behavioral Syndrome, but No Link with Aggression Behavioural Processes. Apr, 2015 | Pubmed ID: 25562194 A behavioral syndrome is observed in a population when specific behaviors overlap at the individual level in different contexts. Here, we explore boldness and aggression personality spectra, the repeatability of shoaling, and possible associated correlations between the behaviors in a population of lab-reared zebrafish (Danio rerio). Our findings describe a sex-specific boldness-shoaling behavioral syndrome, as a link between boldness and shoaling behaviors is detected. The results indicate that bold males are likely to have a stronger shoaling propensity than shy males for unfamiliar conspecifics. Conversely, bold females are more likely to shoal than shy females, but only when presented with heterospecific individuals. Additionally, aggression does not correlate with boldness or shoaling propensity for either sex. A positive relationship between boldness and shoaling that differs by sex is contrary to most of the present literature, but could help to explain population dynamics and may also have evolutionary implications.
A Comparison of Methodologies to Test Aggression in Zebrafish Zebrafish. Apr, 2015 | Pubmed ID: 25621988 Aggression is a psychological construct that is commonly used to classify zebrafish behavior. Aggression is a complex trait that can be difficult to accurately measure. The literature on fish behavior describes many different methodologies to examine aggression, which, we believe, have not been compared in a formal manner. In this study we observed 19 individual zebrafish (Danio rerio) and quantified bites, lateral displays, charges, darts, and time near the stimulus in six common assays used to measure aggression. The methodologies included an inclined mirror assay, two flat mirror assays with different acclimation periods, a live conspecific assay, a clay model stimulus assay, and a video recording assay. Our results indicate high repeatability in most aggressive behaviors over time, which confirms the value of each assay to measure personality. However, our results also indicate significant differences between the assays. Specifically, assays using a flat mirror or live conspecific as a stimulus for aggression elicited more attempted bites than an inclined mirror, a clay model stimulus, or a video recording stimulus. Furthermore, the inclined mirror stimulus provoked more darts than any other assay. The results suggest the need for researchers to consider specific research goals when selecting the appropriate stimulus to provoke aggression in zebrafish.
Interactions Between Aggression, Boldness and Shoaling Within a Brood of Convict Cichlids (Amatitlania Nigrofasciatus) Behavioural Processes. Dec, 2015 | Pubmed ID: 26497098 A behavioral syndrome is considered present when individuals consistently express correlated behaviors across two or more axes of behavior. These axes of behavior are shy-bold, exploration-avoidance, activity, aggression, and sociability. In this study we examined aggression, boldness and sociability (shoaling) within a juvenile convict cichlid brood (Amatitlania nigrofasciatus). Because young convict cichlids are social, we used methodologies commonly used by ethologists studying social fishes. We did not detect an aggression-boldness behavioral syndrome, but we did find that the aggression, boldness, and possibly the exploration behavioral axes play significant roles in shaping the observed variation in individual convict cichlid behavior. While juvenile convict cichlids did express a shoaling preference, this social preference was likely convoluted by aggressive interactions, despite the small size and young age of the fish. There is a need for the development of behavioral assays that allow for more reliable measurement of behavioral axes in juvenile neo-tropical cichlids.