In JoVE (1)
Articles by Harsh Sharthiya in JoVE
Adult Mouse DRG Explant and Dissociated Cell Models to Investigate Neuroplasticity and Responses to Environmental Insults Including Viral Infection Michele Fornaro1, Harsh Sharthiya1, Vaibhav Tiwari2 1Department of Anatomy, Chicago College of Osteopathic Medicine (CCOM), Midwestern University, 2Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Chicago College of Osteopathic Medicine (CCOM), Midwestern University In this report, the advantages of organotypic cultures and dissociated primary cultures of mouse-derived dorsal root ganglia are highlighted to investigate a wide range of mechanisms associated with neuron-glial interaction, neuroplasticity, neuroinflammation, and response to viral infection.
Other articles by Harsh Sharthiya on PubMed
Fluorescence Detection of Intracellular Cadmium with Leadmium Green Biometals : an International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine. | Pubmed ID: 27260023 Leadmium Green is a commercially available, small molecule, fluorescent probe advertised as a detector of free intracellular cadmium (Cd(2+)) and lead (Pb(2+)). Leadmium Green has been used in various paradigms, such as tracking Cd(2+) sequestration in plant cells, heavy metal export in protozoa, and Pb(2+) absorption by vascular endothelial cells. However very little information is available regarding its affinity and selectivity for Cd(2+), Pb(2+), and other metals. We evaluated the in vitro selectivity of Leadmium Green using spectrofluorimetry. Consistent with manufacturer's claims, Leadmium Green was sensitive to Cd(2+) (KD ~600 nM) and also Pb(2+) (KD ~9.0 nM) in a concentration-dependent manner, and furthermore proved insensitive to Ca(2+), Co(2+), Mn(2+) and Ni(2+). Leadmium Green also responded to Zn(2+) with a KD of ~82 nM. Using fluorescence microscopy, we evaluated Leadmium Green in live mouse hippocampal HT22 cells. We demonstrated that Leadmium Green detected ionophore-mediated acute elevations of Cd(2+) or Zn(2+) in a concentration-dependent manner. However, the maximum fluorescence produced by ionophore-delivered Zn(2+) was much less than that produced by Cd(2+). When tested in a model of oxidant-induced liberation of endogenous Zn(2+), Leadmium Green responded weakly. We conclude that Leadmium Green is an effective probe for monitoring intracellular Cd(2+), particularly in models where Cd(2+) accumulates rapidly, and when concomitant fluctuations of intracellular Zn(2+) are minimal.
HSV-1 Interaction to 3-O-sulfated Heparan Sulfate in Mouse-derived DRG Explant and Profiles of Inflammatory Markers During Virus Infection Journal of Neurovirology. | Pubmed ID: 28326469 The molecular mechanism of herpes simplex virus (HSV) entry and the associated inflammatory response in the nervous system remain poorly understood. Using mouse-derived ex vivo dorsal root ganglia (DRG) explant model and single cell neurons (SCNs), in this study, we provided a visual evidence for the expression of heparan sulfate (HS) and 3-O-sulfated heparan sulfate (3-OS HS) followed by their interactions with HSV-1 glycoprotein B (gB) and glycoprotein D (gD) during cell entry. Upon heparanase treatment of DRG-derived SCN, a significant inhibition of HSV-1 entry was observed suggesting the involvement of HS role during viral entry. Finally, a cytokine array profile generated during HSV-1 infection in DRG explant indicated an enhanced expression of chemokines (LIX, TIMP-2, and M-CSF)-known regulators of HS. Taken together, these results highlight the significance of HS during HSV-1 entry in DRG explant. Further investigation is needed to understand which isoforms of 3-O-sulfotransferase (3-OST)-generated HS contributed during HSV-1 infection and associated cell damage.