Articles by Helen R. Clark in JoVE
Analysis of Brain Mitochondria Using Serial Block-Face Scanning Electron Microscopy Konark Mukherjee1, Helen R. Clark1, Vrushali Chavan1, Emily K. Benson2, Grahame J. Kidd2, Sarika Srivastava1 1Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute, 2Renovo Neural Incorporated Mitochondrial visualization and analysis from mammalian brain tissue is a challenging task. Here, we describe how three dimensional (3D) reconstruction analysis from the serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBFSEM) can be used to gain insights on the morphological and volumetric analysis of this critical energy generating organelle.
Other articles by Helen R. Clark on PubMed
Microbe-independent Entry of Oomycete RxLR Effectors and Fungal RxLR-like Effectors into Plant and Animal Cells is Specific and Reproducible Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions : MPMI. Jun, 2013 | Pubmed ID: 23550528 A wide diversity of pathogens and mutualists of plant and animal hosts, including oomycetes and fungi, produce effector proteins that enter the cytoplasm of host cells. A major question has been whether or not entry by these effectors can occur independently of the microbe or requires machinery provided by the microbe. Numerous publications have documented that oomycete RxLR effectors and fungal RxLR-like effectors can enter plant and animal cells independent of the microbe. A recent reexamination of whether the RxLR domain of oomycete RxLR effectors is sufficient for microbe-independent entry into host cells concluded that the RxLR domains of Phytophthora infestans Avr3a and of P. sojae Avr1b alone are NOT sufficient to enable microbe-independent entry of proteins into host and nonhost plant and animal cells. Here, we present new, more detailed data that unambiguously demonstrate that the RxLR domain of Avr1b does show efficient and specific entry into soybean root cells and also into wheat leaf cells, at levels well above background nonspecific entry. We also summarize host cell entry experiments with a wide diversity of oomycete and fungal effectors with RxLR or RxLR-like motifs that have been independently carried out by the seven different labs that coauthored this letter. Finally we discuss possible technical reasons why specific cell entry may have been not detected by Wawra et al. (2013).
Characterizing and Measuring Endocytosis of Lipid-binding Effectors in Mammalian Cells Methods in Enzymology. 2014 | Pubmed ID: 24377920 Pathogen-host interactions are mediated in part by secreted microbial proteins capable of exploiting host cells for their survival. Several of these manipulations involve, but are not limited to, suppression of defense responses, alterations in host vesicular trafficking, and manipulation of gene expression. The delivery of such molecules from microbe to host has been of intense interest in several microbe-host systems. Several well-studied bacterial effectors are delivered directly into host cells through a needle injection apparatus. Conversely, there have been several examples of secreted effectors and protein toxins from bacteria and eukaryotic microbes, such as fungi and oomycetes, being internalized into host cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis. In the following chapter, we discuss various techniques utilized to measure these endocytosed lipid-binding effectors that can be delivered in the absence of the pathogen.
Central Presynaptic Terminals Are Enriched in ATP but the Majority Lack Mitochondria PloS One. 2015 | Pubmed ID: 25928229 Synaptic neurotransmission is known to be an energy demanding process. At the presynapse, ATP is required for loading neurotransmitters into synaptic vesicles, for priming synaptic vesicles before release, and as a substrate for various kinases and ATPases. Although it is assumed that presynaptic sites usually harbor local mitochondria, which may serve as energy powerhouse to generate ATP as well as a presynaptic calcium depot, a clear role of presynaptic mitochondria in biochemical functioning of the presynapse is not well-defined. Besides a few synaptic subtypes like the mossy fibers and the Calyx of Held, most central presynaptic sites are either en passant or tiny axonal terminals that have little space to accommodate a large mitochondrion. Here, we have used imaging studies to demonstrate that mitochondrial antigens poorly co-localize with the synaptic vesicle clusters and active zone marker in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and the cerebellum. Confocal imaging analysis on neuronal cultures revealed that most neuronal mitochondria are either somatic or distributed in the proximal part of major dendrites. A large number of synapses in culture are devoid of any mitochondria. Electron micrographs from neuronal cultures further confirm our finding that the majority of presynapses may not harbor resident mitochondria. We corroborated our ultrastructural findings using serial block face scanning electron microscopy (SBFSEM) and found that more than 60% of the presynaptic terminals lacked discernible mitochondria in the wild-type mice hippocampus. Biochemical fractionation of crude synaptosomes into mitochondria and pure synaptosomes also revealed a sparse presence of mitochondrial antigen at the presynaptic boutons. Despite a low abundance of mitochondria, the synaptosomal membranes were found to be highly enriched in ATP suggesting that the presynapse may possess alternative mechanism/s for concentrating ATP for its function. The potential mechanisms including local glycolysis and the possible roles of ATP-binding synaptic proteins such as synapsins, are discussed.