In JoVE (1)
Articles by Helena Lynn in JoVE
Methodology for the Efficient Generation of Fluorescently Tagged Vaccinia Virus Proteins N. Bishara Marzook*1, Dean J. Procter*1, Helena Lynn1, Yui Yamamoto2, Jacquelyn Horsington3, Timothy P. Newsome1 1School of Molecular Bioscience, University of Sydney, 2Department of Medicine, Center for Vascular Research, 3Asia Pacific Centre for Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Melbourne A rapid and modular protocol for the generation of recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing fluorescently tagged proteins simultaneously using the method of transient dominant selection is described here.
Other articles by Helena Lynn on PubMed
Loss of Cytoskeletal Transport During Egress Critically Attenuates Ectromelia Virus Infection in Vivo Journal of Virology. Jul, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22532690 Egress of wrapped virus (WV) to the cell periphery following vaccinia virus (VACV) replication is dependent on interactions with the microtubule motor complex kinesin-1 and is mediated by the viral envelope protein A36. Here we report that ectromelia virus (ECTV), a related orthopoxvirus and the causative agent of mousepox, encodes an A36 homologue (ECTV-Mos-142) that is highly conserved despite a large truncation at the C terminus. Deleting the ECTV A36R gene leads to a reduction in the number of extracellular viruses formed and to a reduced plaque size, consistent with a role in microtubule transport. We also observed a complete loss of virus-associated actin comets, another phenotype dependent on A36 expression during VACV infection. ECTV ΔA36R was severely attenuated when used to infect the normally susceptible BALB/c mouse strain. ECTV ΔA36R replication and spread from the draining lymph nodes to the liver and spleen were significantly reduced in BALB/c mice and in Rag-1-deficient mice, which lack T and B lymphocytes. The dramatic reduction in ECTV ΔA36R titers early during the course of infection was not associated with an augmented immune response. Taken together, these findings demonstrate the critical role that subcellular transport pathways play not only in orthopoxvirus infection in an in vitro context but also during orthopoxvirus pathogenesis in a natural host. Furthermore, despite the attenuation of the mutant virus, we found that infection nonetheless induced protective immunity in mice, suggesting that orthopoxvirus vectors with A36 deletions may be considered another safe vaccine alternative.
A36-dependent Actin Filament Nucleation Promotes Release of Vaccinia Virus PLoS Pathogens. Mar, 2013 | Pubmed ID: 23555252 Cell-to-cell transmission of vaccinia virus can be mediated by enveloped virions that remain attached to the outer surface of the cell or those released into the medium. During egress, the outer membrane of the double-enveloped virus fuses with the plasma membrane leaving extracellular virus attached to the cell surface via viral envelope proteins. Here we report that F-actin nucleation by the viral protein A36 promotes the disengagement of virus attachment and release of enveloped virus. Cells infected with the A36(YdF) virus, which has mutations at two critical tyrosine residues abrogating localised actin nucleation, displayed a 10-fold reduction in virus release. We examined A36(YdF) infected cells by transmission electron microscopy and observed that during release, virus appeared trapped in small invaginations at the plasma membrane. To further characterise the mechanism by which actin nucleation drives the dissociation of enveloped virus from the cell surface, we examined recombinant viruses by super-resolution microscopy. Fluorescently-tagged A36 was visualised at sub-viral resolution to image cell-virus attachment in mutant and parental backgrounds. We confirmed that A36(YdF) extracellular virus remained closely associated to the plasma membrane in small membrane pits. Virus-induced actin nucleation reduced the extent of association, thereby promoting the untethering of virus from the cell surface. Virus release can be enhanced via a point mutation in the luminal region of B5 (P189S), another virus envelope protein. We found that the B5(P189S) mutation led to reduced contact between extracellular virus and the host membrane during release, even in the absence of virus-induced actin nucleation. Our results posit that during release virus is tightly tethered to the host cell through interactions mediated by viral envelope proteins. Untethering of virus into the surrounding extracellular space requires these interactions be relieved, either through the force of actin nucleation or by mutations in luminal proteins that weaken these interactions.