Other Publications (9)
- Chaos (Woodbury, N.Y.)
- Experimental Physiology
- Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
- Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
- Biophysical Journal
- Conference Proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference
- IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
- The Journal of Physiology
- Europace : European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology : Journal of the Working Groups on Cardiac Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Cellular Electrophysiology of the European Society of Cardiology
Articles by Hermenegild Arevalo in JoVE
Patient-specific Modeling of the Heart: Estimation of Ventricular Fiber Orientations Fijoy Vadakkumpadan1, Hermenegild Arevalo1, Natalia A. Trayanova1 1Institute for Computational Medicine and the Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University A methodology to estimate ventricular fiber orientations from in vivo images of patient heart geometries for personalized modeling is described. Validation of the methodology performed using normal and failing canine hearts demonstrate that that there are no significant differences between estimated and acquired fiber orientations at a clinically observable level.
Other articles by Hermenegild Arevalo on PubMed
Arrhythmogenesis in the Heart: Multiscale Modeling of the Effects of Defibrillation Shocks and the Role of Electrophysiological Heterogeneity Chaos (Woodbury, N.Y.). Mar, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17411260 The mechanisms of initiation of ventricular arrhythmias as well as those behind the complex spatiotemporal wave dynamics and its filament organization during ventricular fibrillation (VF) are the topic of intense research and debate. Mechanistic inquiry into the various mechanisms that lead to arrhythmia initiation and VF maintenance is hampered by the inability of current experimental techniques to resolve, with sufficient accuracy, electrical behavior confined to the depth of the ventricles. The objective of this article is to demonstrate that realistic 3D simulations of electrical activity in the heart are capable of bringing a new level of understanding of the mechanisms that underlie arrhythmia initiation and subsequent organization. The article does this by presenting the results of two multiscale simulation studies of ventricular electrical behavior. The first study aims to uncover the mechanisms responsible for rendering the ventricles vulnerable to electric shocks during a specific interval of time, the vulnerable window. The second study focuses on elucidating the role of electrophysiological heterogeneity, and specifically, differences in action potential duration in various ventricular structures, in VF organization. Both studies share common multiscale modeling approaches and analysis, including characterization of scroll-wave filament dynamics.
Towards Predictive Modelling of the Electrophysiology of the Heart Experimental Physiology. May, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19270037 The simulation of cardiac electrical function is an example of a successful integrative multiscale modelling approach that is directly relevant to human disease. Today we stand at the threshold of a new era, in which anatomically detailed, tomographically reconstructed models are being developed that integrate from the ion channel to the electromechanical interactions in the intact heart. Such models hold high promise for interpretation of clinical and physiological measurements, for improving the basic understanding of the mechanisms of dysfunction in disease, such as arrhythmias, myocardial ischaemia and heart failure, and for the development and performance optimization of medical devices. The goal of this article is to present an overview of current state-of-art advances towards predictive computational modelling of the heart as developed recently by the authors of this article. We first outline the methodology for constructing electrophysiological models of the heart. We then provide three examples that demonstrate the use of these models, focusing specifically on the mechanisms for arrhythmogenesis and defibrillation in the heart. These include: (1) uncovering the role of ventricular structure in defibrillation; (2) examining the contribution of Purkinje fibres to the failure of the shock; and (3) using magnetic resonance imaging reconstructed heart models to investigate the re-entrant circuits formed in the presence of an infarct scar.
Image-based Models of Cardiac Structure in Health and Disease Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine. Jul-Aug, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20582162 Computational approaches to investigating the electromechanics of healthy and diseased hearts are becoming essential for the comprehensive understanding of cardiac function. In this article, we first present a brief review of existing image-based computational models of cardiac structure. We then provide a detailed explanation of a processing pipeline which we have recently developed for constructing realistic computational models of the heart from high resolution structural and diffusion tensor (DT) magnetic resonance (MR) images acquired ex vivo. The presentation of the pipeline incorporates a review of the methodologies that can be used to reconstruct models of cardiac structure. In this pipeline, the structural image is segmented to reconstruct the ventricles, normal myocardium, and infarct. A finite element mesh is generated from the segmented structural image, and fiber orientations are assigned to the elements based on DTMR data. The methods were applied to construct seven different models of healthy and diseased hearts. These models contain millions of elements, with spatial resolutions in the order of hundreds of microns, providing unprecedented detail in the representation of cardiac structure for simulation studies.
Models of Cardiac Electromechanics Based on Individual Hearts Imaging Data: Image-based Electromechanical Models of the Heart Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology. Jun, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 20589408 Current multi-scale computational models of ventricular electromechanics describe the full process of cardiac contraction on both the micro- and macro- scales including: the depolarization of cardiac cells, the release of calcium from intracellular stores, tension generation by cardiac myofilaments, and mechanical contraction of the whole heart. Such models are used to reveal basic mechanisms of cardiac contraction as well as the mechanisms of cardiac dysfunction in disease conditions. In this paper, we present a methodology to construct finite element electromechanical models of ventricular contraction with anatomically accurate ventricular geometry based on magnetic resonance and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging of the heart. The electromechanical model couples detailed representations of the cardiac cell membrane, cardiac myofilament dynamics, electrical impulse propagation, ventricular contraction, and circulation to simulate the electrical and mechanical activity of the ventricles. The utility of the model is demonstrated in an example simulation of contraction during sinus rhythm using a model of the normal canine ventricles.
Susceptibility to Arrhythmia in the Infarcted Heart Depends on Myofibroblast Density Biophysical Journal. Sep, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21943411 Fibroblasts are electrophysiologically quiescent in the healthy heart. Evidence suggests that remodeling following myocardial infarction may include coupling of myofibroblasts (Mfbs) among themselves and with myocytes via gap junctions. We use a magnetic resonance imaging-based, three-dimensional computational model of the chronically infarcted rabbit ventricles to characterize the arrhythmogenic substrate resulting from Mfb infiltration as a function of Mfb density. Mfbs forming gap junctions were incorporated into both infarct regions, the periinfarct zone (PZ) and the scar; six scenarios were modeled: 0%, 10%, and 30% Mfbs in the PZ, with either 80% or 0% Mfbs in the scar. Ionic current remodeling in PZ was also included. All preparations exhibited elevated resting membrane potential within and near the PZ and action potential duration shortening throughout the ventricles. The unique combination of PZ ionic current remodeling and different degrees of Mfb infiltration in the infarcted ventricles determines susceptibility to arrhythmia. At low densities, Mfbs do not alter arrhythmia propensity; the latter arises predominantly from ionic current remodeling in PZ. At intermediate densities, Mfbs cause additional action potential shortening and exacerbate arrhythmia propensity. At high densities, Mfbs protect against arrhythmia by causing resting depolarization and blocking propagation, thus overcoming the arrhythmogenic effects of PZ ionic current remodeling.
Image-based Estimation of Ventricular Fiber Orientations for Patient-specific Simulations Conference Proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22254646 Patient-specific simulation of heart (dys)function aimed at personalizing cardiac therapy are hampered by the absence of in vivo imaging technology for clinically acquiring myocardial fiber orientations. In this research, we develop a methodology to predict ventricular fiber orientations of a patient heart, given the geometry of the heart and an atlas. We test the methodology by comparing the estimated fiber orientations with measured ones, and by quantifying the effect of the estimation error on outcomes of electrophysiological simulations, in normal and failing canine hearts. The new insights obtained from the project will pave the way for the development of patient-specific models of the heart that can aid physicians in personalized diagnosis and decisions regarding electrophysiological interventions.
Image-based Estimation of Ventricular Fiber Orientations for Personalized Modeling of Cardiac Electrophysiology IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging. May, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22271833 Technological limitations pose a major challenge to acquisition of myocardial fiber orientations for patient-specific modeling of cardiac (dys)function and assessment of therapy. The objective of this project was to develop a methodology to estimate cardiac fiber orientations from in vivo images of patient heart geometries. An accurate representation of ventricular geometry and fiber orientations was reconstructed, respectively, from high-resolution ex vivo structural magnetic resonance (MR) and diffusion tensor (DT) MR images of a normal human heart, referred to as the atlas. Ventricular geometry of a patient heart was extracted, via semiautomatic segmentation, from an in vivo computed tomography (CT) image. Using image transformation algorithms, the atlas ventricular geometry was deformed to match that of the patient. Finally, the deformation field was applied to the atlas fiber orientations to obtain an estimate of patient fiber orientations. The accuracy of the fiber estimates was assessed using six normal and three failing canine hearts. The mean absolute difference between inclination angles of acquired and estimated fiber orientations was 15.4Â°. Computational simulations of ventricular activation maps and pseudo-ECGs in sinus rhythm and ventricular tachycardia indicated that there are no significant differences between estimated and acquired fiber orientations at a clinically observable level.
Three-dimensional Mechanisms of Increased Vulnerability to Electric Shocks in Myocardial Infarction: Altered Virtual Electrode Polarizations and Conduction Delay in the Peri-infarct Zone The Journal of Physiology. Sep, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22586222 Defibrillation efficacy is decreased in infarcted hearts, but the mechanisms by which infarcted hearts are more vulnerable to electric shocks than healthy hearts remain poorly understood. The goal of this study was to provide insight into the 3D mechanisms for the increased vulnerability to electric shocks in infarcted hearts. We hypothesized that changes in virtual electrode polarizations (VEPs) and propagation delay through the peri-infarct zone (PZ) were responsible. We developed a micro anatomically detailed rabbit ventricular model with chronic myocardial infarction from magnetic resonance imaging and enriched the model with data from optical mapping experiments. We further developed a control model without the infarct. The simulation protocol involved apical pacing followed by biphasic shocks. Simulation results from both models were compared.The upper limit of vulnerability(ULV) was 8 V cm(-1) in the infarction model and 4 V cm(-1) in the control model. VEPs were less pronounced in the infarction model, providing a larger excitable area for postshock propagation but smaller transmembrane potential gradients to initiate new wavefronts. Initial post-shock transmural activation occurred at a later time in the infarction model, and the PZ served to delay propagation in subsequent beats. The presence of the PZ was found to be responsible for the increased vulnerability.
Computational Cardiology: How Computer Simulations Could Be Used to Develop New Therapies and Advance Existing Ones Europace : European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology : Journal of the Working Groups on Cardiac Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Cellular Electrophysiology of the European Society of Cardiology. Nov, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 23104919 This article reviews the latest developments in computational cardiology. It focuses on the contribution of cardiac modelling to the development of new therapies as well as the advancement of existing ones for cardiac arrhythmias and pump dysfunction. Reviewed are cardiac modelling efforts aimed at advancing and optimizing existent therapies for cardiac disease (defibrillation, ablation of ventricular tachycardia, and cardiac resynchronization therapy) and at suggesting novel treatments, including novel molecular targets, as well as efforts to use cardiac models in stratification of patients likely to benefit from a given therapy, and the use of models in diagnostic procedures.