Other Publications (8)
- The Biochemical Journal
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- Developmental Cell
- International Journal of Cancer. Journal International Du Cancer
- Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
- Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
- Nature Medicine
- Plant Physiology and Biochemistry : PPB / SociÃ©tÃ© FranÃ§aise De Physiologie VÃ©gÃ©tale
Articles by I-Chun Tsai in JoVE
In Vivo Modeling of the Morbid Human Genome using Danio rerio Adrienne R. Niederriter1,2, Erica E. Davis1,3, Christelle Golzio1, Edwin C. Oh1, I-Chun Tsai1, Nicholas Katsanis1 1Center for Human Disease Modeling, Department of Cell Biology, Duke University Medical Center, 2Department of Evolutionary Anthropology, Duke University, 3Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center Here, we present a systematic approach for developing physiologically relevant, sensitive and specific in vivo assays for interpreting variation in human pathology. Transient genetic manipulation via microinjection of WT and mutant human mRNA and morpholino (MO) antisense oligonucleotides harness the tractability of the developing zebrafish embryo to rapidly assay pathogenic mutations, especially, but not exclusively, in the context of human developmental disorders.
Other articles by I-Chun Tsai on PubMed
Degradation of Human Thymidine Kinase is Dependent on Serine-13 Phosphorylation: Involvement of the SCF-mediated Pathway The Biochemical Journal. Feb, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12435275 The expression level of human thymidine kinase (hTK) is regulated in a cell-cycle-dependent manner. One of the mechanisms responsible for the fluctuation of TK expression in the cell cycle can be attributed to protein degradation during mitosis. Given the facts that cell-cycle-dependent proteolysis is highly conserved in all eukaryotes and yeast cells are an excellent model system for protein-degradation study, here we report on the use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe to investigate the degradation signal and mechanism required for hTK degradation. We found that the stability of hTK is significantly reduced in mitotic yeasts. Previously, we have observed that Ser-13 is the site of mitotic phosphorylation of hTK in HeLa cells [Chang, Huang and Chi (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 12095-12100]. Here, we further provide evidence that the replacement of Ser-13 by Ala (S13A) renders hTK stable in S. pombe and S. cerevisiae. Most interestingly, we demonstrated that degradation of hTK is impaired in S. cerevisiae carrying a temperature-sensitive mutation in the proteasomal gene pre1-1 or the Skp1-Cullin-1/CDC53-F-box (SCF) complex gene cdc34 or cdc53, suggesting the contribution of the SCF-mediated pathway in hTK degradation. As phosphorylation is a prerequisite signal for SCF recognition, our results implied that phosphorylation of Ser-13 probably contributes to the degradation signal for hTK via the SCF-mediated proteolytic pathway.
Regulation of Casein Kinase I Epsilon Activity by Wnt Signaling The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Mar, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 14722104 The Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway is important in both development and cancer. Casein kinase Iepsilon (CKIepsilon) is a positive regulator of the canonical Wnt pathway. CKIepsilon itself can be regulated in vitro by inhibitory autophosphorylation, and recent data suggest that in vivo kinase activity can be regulated by extracellular stimuli. We show here that the phosphorylation state and kinase activity of CKIepsilon are directly regulated by Wnt signaling. Coexpression of XWnt-8 or addition of soluble Wnt-3a ligand led to a significant and rapid increase in the activity of endogenous CKIepsilon. The increase in CKIepsilon activity is the result of decreased inhibitory autophosphorylation because it is abolished by preincubation of immunoprecipitated kinase with ATP. Furthermore, mutation of CKIepsilon inhibitory autophosphorylation sites creates a kinase termed CKIepsilon(MM2) that is significantly more active than CKIepsilon and is not activated further upon Wnt stimulation. Autoinhibition of CKIepsilon is biologically relevant because CKIepsilon(MM2) is more effective than CKIepsilon at activating transcription from a Lef1-dependent promoter. Finally, CKIepsilon(MM2) expression in Xenopus embryos induces both axis duplication and additional developmental abnormalities. The data suggest that Wnt signaling activates CKIepsilon by causing transient dephosphorylation of critical inhibitory sites present in the carboxyl-terminal domain of the kinase. Activation of the Wnt pathway may therefore stimulate a cellular phosphatase to dephosphorylate and activate CKIepsilon
A Wnt-CKIvarepsilon-Rap1 Pathway Regulates Gastrulation by Modulating SIPA1L1, a Rap GTPase Activating Protein Developmental Cell. Mar, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17336901 Noncanonical Wnt signals control morphogenetic movements during vertebrate gastrulation. Casein kinase I epsilon (CKIvarepsilon) is a Wnt-regulated kinase that regulates Wnt/beta-catenin signaling and has a beta-catenin-independent role(s) in morphogenesis that is poorly understood. Here we report the identification of a CKIvarepsilon binding partner, SIPA1L1/E6TP1, a GAP (GTPase activating protein) of the Rap small GTPase family. We show that CKIvarepsilon phosphorylates SIPA1L1 to reduce its stability and thereby increase Rap1 activation. Wnt-8, which activates CKIvarepsilon, enhances the CKIvarepsilon-dependent phosphorylation and degradation of SIPA1L1. In early Xenopus or zebrafish development, inactivation of the Rap1 pathway results in abnormal gastrulation and a shortened anterior-posterior axis. Although CKIvarepsilon also transduces Wnt/beta-catenin signaling, inhibition of Rap1 does not alter beta-catenin-regulated gene expression. Our data demonstrate a role for CKIvarepsilon in noncanonical Wnt signaling and indicate that Wnt regulates morphogenesis in part through CKIvarepsilon-mediated control of Rap1 signaling.
Disease-associated Casein Kinase I Delta Mutation May Promote Adenomatous Polyps Formation Via a Wnt/beta-catenin Independent Mechanism International Journal of Cancer. Journal International Du Cancer. Mar, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17131344 The Wnt signaling pathway is critical for embryonic development and is dysregulated in multiple cancers. Two closely related isoforms of casein kinase I (CKIdelta and epsilon) are positive regulators of this pathway. We speculated that mutations in the autoinhibitory domain of CKIdelta/epsilon might upregulate CKIdelta/epsilon activity and hence Wnt signaling and increase the risk of adenomatous polyps and colon cancer. Exons encoding the CKIepsilon and CKIdelta regulatory domains were sequenced from DNA obtained from individuals with adenomatous polyps and a family history of colon cancer unaffected by familial adenomatous polyposis or hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). A CKIdelta missense mutation, changing a highly conserved residue, Arg324, to His (R324H), was found in an individual with large and multiple polyps diagnosed at a relatively young age. Two findings indicate that this mutation is biologically active. First, ectopic ventral expression of CKIdelta(R324H) in Xenopus embryos results in secondary axis formation with an additional distinctive phenotype (altered morphological movements) similar to that seen with unregulated CKIepsilon. Second, CKIdelta(R324H) is more potent than wildtype CKIdelta in transformation of RKO colon cancer cells. Although the R324H mutation does not significantly change CKIdelta kinase activity in an in vitro kinase assay or Wnt/beta-catenin signal transduction as assessed by a beta-catenin reporter assay, it alters morphogenetic movements via a beta-catenin-independent mechanism in early Xenopus development. This novel human CKIdelta mutation may alter the physiological role and enhance the transforming ability of CKIdelta through a Wnt/beta-catenin independent mechanism and thereby influence colonic adenoma development.
NP-184[2-(5-methyl-2-furyl) Benzimidazole], a Novel Orally Active Antithrombotic Agent with Dual Antiplatelet and Anticoagulant Activities Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology. Jun, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20349046 The established antiplatelet and anticoagulant agents show beneficial effects in the treatment of thromboembolic diseases; however, these drugs still have considerable limitations. The effects of NP-184, a synthetic compound, on platelet functions, plasma coagulant activity, and mesenteric venule thrombosis in mice were investigated. NP-184 concentration-dependently inhibited the human platelet aggregation induced by collagen, arachidonic acid (AA), and U46619, a thromboxane (TX)A(2) mimic, with IC(50) values of 4.5 +/- 0.2, 3.9 +/- 0.1, and 9.3 +/- 0.5 microM, respectively. Moreover, NP-184 concentration-dependently suppressed TXA(2) formations caused by collagen and AA. In exploring effects of NP-184 on enzymes involved in TXA(2) synthesis, we found that NP-184 selectively inhibited TXA(2) synthase activity with an IC(50) value of 4.3 +/- 0.2 microM. Furthermore, NP-184 produced a right shift of the concentration-response curve of U46619, indicating a competitive antagonism on TXA(2)/prostaglandin H(2) receptor. Intriguingly, NP-184 also caused a concentration-dependent prolongation of the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) with no changes in the prothrombin and thrombin time, indicating that it selectively impairs the intrinsic coagulation pathway. Oral administration of NP-184 significantly inhibited thrombus formation of the irradiated mesenteric venules in fluorescein sodium-treated mice without affecting the bleeding time induced by tail transection. However, after oral administration, NP-184 inhibited the ex vivo mouse platelet aggregation triggered by collagen and U46619 and also prolonged aPTT. Taken together, the dual antiplatelet and anticoagulant activities of NP-184 may have therapeutic potential as an oral antithrombotic agent in the treatment of thromboembolic disorders.
Pipoxolan Inhibits Proliferation of HL-60 Human Leukaemia Cancer Cells by Arresting the Cell Cycle at the G0/G1 Phase Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology. May, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20082627 1. The aim of the present study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms by which pipoxolan exerts its inhibitory effects and apoptotic activity in human leukaemia HL-60 cells. 2. The effects of pipoxolan on the proliferation of HL-60 cells and on the distribution of cells within different phases of the cell cycle were investigated indirectly using a Trypan blue assay and a flow cytometer, respectively. The effects of pipoxolan on the apoptosis of HL-60 cells was investigated using DNA fragmentation and flow cytometer. The expression of factors affecting the cell cycle and apoptosis, including p53, p21, Bax, Bcl2, cytochrome c, caspase 3 and caspase 9, was examined by western blotting. 3. At 6.25 microg/mL, pipoxolan significantly induced apoptosis in human leukaemia HL-60 cells after 24 h exposure. In addition, HL-60 cells were arrested in the G(0)/G(1) phase via the induction of p53/p21 by pipoxolan. Apoptosis was associated with an increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, cytochrome c release, cleavage of procaspases-9 and -3 and hydrolysis of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) seem to play a key role in the pipoxolan-induced apoptosis, because high levels of ROS were produced early in the drug treatment. Apoptosis was significantly abrogated by the free radical scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC).
Gene Therapy Rescues Cilia Defects and Restores Olfactory Function in a Mammalian Ciliopathy Model Nature Medicine. Sep, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22941275 Cilia are evolutionarily conserved microtubule-based organelles that are crucial for diverse biological functions, including motility, cell signaling and sensory perception. In humans, alterations in the formation and function of cilia manifest clinically as ciliopathies, a growing class of pleiotropic genetic disorders. Despite the substantial progress that has been made in identifying genes that cause ciliopathies, therapies for these disorders are not yet available to patients. Although mice with a hypomorphic mutation in the intraflagellar transport protein IFT88 (Ift88Tg737Rpw mice, also known as ORPK mice)5 have been well studied, the relevance of IFT88 mutations to human pathology is unknown. We show that a mutation in IFT88 causes a hitherto unknown human ciliopathy. In vivo complementation assays in zebrafish and mIMCD3 cells show the pathogenicity of this newly discovered allele. We further show that ORPK mice are functionally anosmic as a result of the loss of cilia on their olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). Notably, adenoviral-mediated expression of IFT88 in mature, fully differentiated OSNs of ORPK mice is sufficient to restore ciliary structures and rescue olfactory function. These studies are the first to use in vivo therapeutic treatment to reestablish cilia in a mammalian ciliopathy. More broadly, our studies indicate that gene therapy is a viable option for cellular and functional rescue of the complex ciliary organelle in established differentiated cells.
Cloning and Expression of Pathogenesis-related Protein 4 from Jelly Fig (Ficus Awkeotsang Makino) Achenes Associated with Ribonuclease, Chitinase and Anti-fungal Activities Plant Physiology and Biochemistry : PPB / SociÃ©tÃ© FranÃ§aise De Physiologie VÃ©gÃ©tale. Jul, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22579939 A cDNA fragment (FaPR4) encoding a class I pathogenesis-related protein 4 (PR-4) from Ficus awkeotsang was obtained by PCR cloning. Plant PR-4s were grouped into class I and II, differing by the presence of ChtBD and hinge. The predicted mature FaPR4 comprises N-terminal chitin-binding domain (ChtBD), hinge, Barwin domain and C-terminal extension. FaPR4-C, an N-terminal truncated form of FaPR4, was designed to mimic the structural feature of class II PR-4s. FaPR4 and FaPR4-C were over-expressed in yeast Pichia pastoris, and both recombinants exhibited RNase and anti-fungal activities. To our knowledge, it is the first report that FaPR4, a member of class I PR-4s has RNase activity as class II. FaPR4 possesses better anti-fungal activities toward Fusarium oxysporum and Sclerotium rolfsii than FaPR4-C. Heat-treated FaPR4 remained RNase and anti-fungal activities; while heat-treated FaPR4-C lost those activities. Therefore, ChtBD of FaPR4 may not only contribute to its anti-fungal but also improve the thermal stability of protein. It also implied the correlation of RNase activity with anti-fungal activity of FaPR4-C. Furthermore, FaPR4 was detected to have weak but significant chitinase activity, and its chitinase activity was reduced after heat treatment. The chitinase activity by FaPR4-C was much lower than FaPR4.