Articles by Iris Martin in JoVE
Other articles by Iris Martin on PubMed
Femtosecond Kinetics of Photoconversion of the Higher Plant Photoreceptor Phytochrome Carrying Native and Modified Chromophores Biophysical Journal. Jun, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18199671 The photoprocesses of native (phyA of oat), and of C-terminally truncated recombinant phytochromes, assembled instead of the native phytochromobilin with phycocyanobilin (PCB-65 kDa-phy) and iso-phycocyanobilin (iso-PCB-65 kDa-phy) chromophores, have been studied by femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy in both their red absorbing phytochrome (P(r)) and far-red absorbing phytochrome (P(fr)) forms. Native P(r) phytochrome shows an excitation wavelength dependence of the kinetics with three main picosecond components. The formation kinetics of the first ground-state intermediate I(700), absorbing at approximately 690 nm, is mainly described by 28 ps or 40 ps components in native and PCB phytochrome, respectively, whereas additional approximately 15 and 50 ps components describe conformational dynamics and equilibria among different local minima on the excited-state hypersurface. No significant amount of I(700) formation can be observed on our timescale for iso-PCB phytochrome. We suggest that iso-PCB-65 kDa-phy either interacts with the protein differently leading to a more twisted and/or less protonated configuration, or undergoes P(r) to P(fr) isomerization primarily via a different configurational pathway, largely circumventing I(700) as an intermediate. The isomerization process is accompanied by strong coherent oscillations due to wavepacket motion on the excited-state surface for both phytochrome forms. The femto- to (sub-)nanosecond kinetics of the P(fr) forms is again quite similar for the native and the PCB phytochromes. After an ultrafast excited-state relaxation within approximately 150 fs, the chromophores return to the first ground-state intermediate in 400-800 fs followed by two additional ground-state intermediates which are formed with 2-3 ps and approximately 400 ps lifetimes. We call the first ground-state intermediate in native phytochrome I(fr 750), due to its pronounced absorption at that wavelength. The other intermediates are termed I(fr 675) and pseudo-P(r). The absorption spectrum of the latter already closely resembles the absorption of the P(r) chromophore. PCB-65 kDa-phy shows a very similar kinetics, although many of the detailed spectral features in the transients seen in native phy are blurred, presumably due to wider inhomogeneous distribution of the chromophore conformation. Iso-PCB-65 kDa-phy shows similar features to the PCB-65 kDa-phy, with some additional blue-shift of the transient spectra of approximately 10 nm. The sub-200 fs component is, however, absent, and the picosecond lifetimes are somewhat longer than in 124 kDa phytochrome or in PCB-65 kDa-phy. We interpret the data within the framework of two- and three-dimensional potential energy surface diagrams for the photoisomerization processes and the ground-state intermediates involved in the two photoconversions.
Fast Real-Time PCR Assay for Detection of Tetramicra Brevifilum in Cultured Turbot Parasitology. Mar, 2013 | Pubmed ID: 23068417 Global aquaculture production of turbot has rapidly increased worldwide in the last decade and it is expected to have even bigger growth in the next years due to new farms operating. The losses caused by pathogen infections have grown at the same time as the production of this species. Parasitological infections are among the main relevant pathologies associated with its culture and produce serious losses in aquaculture, reduce the growth rate in fish and may lead to unmarketable fish due to skeletal muscle abnormalities in cases with high intensity of infection. The microsporidian parasite Tetramicra brevifilum causes severe infections and generates major losses in farmed turbot. Infections are difficult to control due to spore longevity and its direct transmission. To facilitate the infection management, an effective tool for fast detection and identification of T. brevifilum is needed. This study provides a molecular methodology of fast Real-Time PCR for T. brevifilum detection to the aquaculture industry, useful for routine control of T. brevifilum at turbot farms. The method is characterized by its high specificity and sensitivity, and it can be applied to cultured turbot for parasite detection regardless of the life-cycle stage of the pathogen or the infection intensity.