In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (8)

Articles by J. Adam Noah in JoVE

 JoVE Behavior

fMRI Validation of fNIRS Measurements During a Naturalistic Task

1Department of Psychiatry, Yale School of Medicine, 2Department of Electronics and Bioinformatics, Meiji University, 3Department of Histology and Neurobiology, Dokkyo Medical University School of Medicine, 4ADAM Center, Department of Physical Therapy, Movement and Rehabilitation Sciences, Northeastern University, 5Department of Neurobiology, Yale School of Medicine

JoVE 52116

Other articles by J. Adam Noah on PubMed

Breathing Frequency Changes at the Onset of Stepping in Human Infants

Journal of Neurophysiology. Mar, 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 18184890

Breathing frequency increases at the onset of movement in a wide rage of mammals including adult humans. Moreover, the magnitude of increase in the rate of breathing appears related to the rate of the rhythmic movement. We determined whether human infants show the same type of response when supported to step on a treadmill. Twenty infants (ages 9.7 +/- 1.2 mo) participated in trials consisting of sitting, stepping on the treadmill, followed by sitting again. Breathing frequency was recorded with a thermocouple, positioned under one naris and taped to a soother that the infant held in his/her mouth. A video camera, electrogoniometers, and force platforms under the treadmill belts recorded stepping movements. We found that the rate of breathing changed at the beginning of stepping. Most surprisingly, we found that when infants stepped at a frequency slower than their breathing frequency in sitting, the breathing frequency decreased. Average breathing frequency during stepping was positively correlated with stepping frequency. There was no evidence of entrainment between stepping and breathing. In conclusion, the rapid change in breathing frequency at the beginning of movement is functional in infants. The direction and magnitude of change in breathing is associated with the leg movements.

Interlimb Coordination in Human Crawling Reveals Similarities in Development and Neural Control with Quadrupeds

Journal of Neurophysiology. Feb, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19036860

The study of quadrupeds has furnished most of our understanding of mammalian locomotion. To allow a more direct comparison of coordination between the four limbs in humans and quadrupeds, we studied crawling in the human, a behavior that is part of normal human development and mechanically more similar to quadrupedal locomotion than is bipedal walking. Interlimb coordination during hands-and-knees crawling is compared between humans and quadrupeds and between human infants and adults. Mechanical factors were manipulated during crawling to understand the relative contributions of mechanics and neural control. Twenty-six infants and seven adults were studied. Video, force plate, and electrogoniometer data were collected. Belt speed of the treadmill, width of base, and limb length were manipulated in adults. Influences of unweighting and limb length were explored in infants. Infants tended to move diagonal limbs together (trot-like). Adults additionally moved ipsilateral limbs together (pace-like). At lower speeds, movements of the four limbs were more equally spaced in time, with no clear pairing of limbs. At higher speeds, running symmetrical gaits were never observed, although one adult galloped. Widening stance prevented adults from using the pace-like gait, whereas lengthening the hind limbs (hands-and-feet crawling) largely prevented the trot-like gait. Limb length and unweighting had no effect on coordination in infants. We conclude that human crawling shares features both with other primates and with nonprimate quadrupeds, suggesting similar underlying mechanisms. The greater restriction in coordination patterns used by infants suggests their nervous system has less flexibility.

Parietal and Temporal Activity During a Multimodal Dance Video Game: an FNIRS Study

Neuroscience Letters. Oct, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 21875646

Using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) we studied how playing a dance video game employs coordinated activation of sensory-motor integration centers of the superior parietal lobe (SPL) and superior temporal gyrus (STG). Subjects played a dance video game, in a block design with 30s of activity alternating with 30s of rest, while changes in oxy-hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) levels were continuously measured. The game was modified to compare difficult (4-arrow), simple (2-arrow), and stepping conditions. Oxy-Hb levels were greatest with increased task difficulty. The quick-onset, trapezoidal time-course increase in SPL oxy-Hb levels reflected the on-off neuronal response of spatial orienting and rhythmic motor timing that were required during the activity. Slow-onset, bell-shaped increases in oxy-Hb levels observed in STG suggested the gradually increasing load of directing multisensory information to downstream processing centers associated with motor behavior and control. Differences in temporal relationships of SPL and STG oxy-Hb concentration levels may reflect the functional roles of these brain structures during the task period. NIRS permits insights into temporal relationships of cortical hemodynamics during real motor tasks.

Developmental Constraints of Quadrupedal Coordination Across Crawling Styles in Human Infants

Journal of Neurophysiology. Jun, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22402655

Human infants can crawl using several very different styles; this diversity appears at first glance to contradict our previous findings from hands-and-knees crawling, which suggested that there were strict limitations on coordination, imposed either mechanically or by the developing nervous system. To determine whether coordination was similarly restricted across crawling styles, we studied free crawling overground in 22 infants who used a number of different locomotor strategies. Despite the wide variety in the use of individual limbs and even the number of limbs used, the duration of the stance phase increased with duration of cycle, whereas the duration of the swing phase remained more constant. Additionally, all infants showed organized, rhythmic interlimb coordination. Alternating patterns (e.g., trotlike) predominated (86% of infants). Alternatively, yet much less frequently, all limbs used could work in synchrony (14% of infants). Pacelike patterns were never observed, even in infants that crawled with the belly remaining in contact with the ground so that stability was not a factor. To explore the robustness of the interlimb coordination, a perturbation that prolonged swing of the leg was imposed on 14 additional infants crawling on hands and knees overground or on the treadmill. The perturbation led to a resetting of the crawling pattern, but never to a change in the coordination of the limbs. The findings concur with those regarding other infant animals, together suggesting that the nervous system itself limits the coordination patterns available at a young age.

Activation of Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex in a Dual Neuropsychological Screening Test: an FMRI Approach

Behavioral and Brain Functions : BBF. 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22640773

The Kana Pick-out Test (KPT), which uses Kana or Japanese symbols that represent syllables, requires parallel processing of discrete (pick-out) and continuous (reading) dual tasks. As a dual task, the KPT is thought to test working memory and executive function, particularly in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), and is widely used in Japan as a clinical screen for dementia. Nevertheless, there has been little neurological investigation into PFC activity during this test.

Energy Cost and Game Flow of 5 Exer-games in Trained Players

American Journal of Health Behavior. May, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23985184

To determine energy expenditure and player experience in exer-games designed for novel platforms.

Frontotemporal Oxyhemoglobin Dynamics Predict Performance Accuracy of Dance Simulation Gameplay: Temporal Characteristics of Top-down and Bottom-up Cortical Activities

NeuroImage. Jan, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 23707582

We utilized the high temporal resolution of functional near-infrared spectroscopy to explore how sensory input (visual and rhythmic auditory cues) are processed in the cortical areas of multimodal integration to achieve coordinated motor output during unrestricted dance simulation gameplay. Using an open source clone of the dance simulation video game, Dance Dance Revolution, two cortical regions of interest were selected for study, the middle temporal gyrus (MTG) and the frontopolar cortex (FPC). We hypothesized that activity in the FPC would indicate top-down regulatory mechanisms of motor behavior; while that in the MTG would be sustained due to bottom-up integration of visual and auditory cues throughout the task. We also hypothesized that a correlation would exist between behavioral performance and the temporal patterns of the hemodynamic responses in these regions of interest. Results indicated that greater temporal accuracy of dance steps positively correlated with persistent activation of the MTG and with cumulative suppression of the FPC. When auditory cues were eliminated from the simulation, modifications in cortical responses were found depending on the gameplay performance. In the MTG, high-performance players showed an increase but low-performance players displayed a decrease in cumulative amount of the oxygenated hemoglobin response in the no music condition compared to that in the music condition. In the FPC, high-performance players showed relatively small variance in the activity regardless of the presence of auditory cues, while low-performance players showed larger differences in the activity between the no music and music conditions. These results suggest that the MTG plays an important role in the successful integration of visual and rhythmic cues and the FPC may work as top-down control to compensate for insufficient integrative ability of visual and rhythmic cues in the MTG. The relative relationships between these cortical areas indicated high- to low-performance levels when performing cued motor tasks. We propose that changes in these relationships can be monitored to gauge performance increases in motor learning and rehabilitation programs.

Physiological and Psychophysiological Responses to an Exer-game Training Protocol

Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport / Sports Medicine Australia. Mar, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25824058

Exer-games and virtual reality offer alternative opportunities to provide neuro-rehabilitation and exercise that are fun. Our goal was to determine how effective they are in achieving motor learning goals and fitness benefits as players gain experience.

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