Articles by Janelle Drouin-Ouellet in JoVE
Simple Generation of a High Yield Culture of Induced Neurons from Human Adult Skin Fibroblasts Shelby Shrigley1, Karolina Pircs1, Roger A. Barker1,2, Malin Parmar1, Janelle Drouin-Ouellet1 1Department of Experimental Medical Science, Wallenberg Neuroscience Center, Division of Neurobiology and Lund Stem Cell Center, Lund University, 2John van Geest Centre for Brain Repair & Department of Neurology, Department of Clinical Neurosciences and Cambridge Stem Cell Institute, University of Cambridge Direct neuronal reprogramming generates neurons that maintain the age of the starting somatic cell. Here, we describe a single vector-based method to generate induced neurons from dermal fibroblasts obtained from adult human donors.
Other articles by Janelle Drouin-Ouellet on PubMed
Cell-based Therapies for Parkinson Disease—past Insights and Future Potential Nature Reviews. Neurology. | Pubmed ID: 26240036 Parkinson disease (PD) is characterized by loss of the A9 nigral neurons that provide dopaminergic innervation to the striatum. This discovery led to the successful instigation of dopaminergic drug treatments in the 1960s, although these drugs were soon recognized to lose some of their efficacy and generate their own adverse effects over time. Despite the fact that PD is now known to have extensive non-nigral pathology with a wide range of clinical features, dopaminergic drug therapies are still the mainstay of therapy, and work well for many years. Given the success of pharmacological dopamine replacement, pursuit of cell-based dopamine replacement strategies seemed to be the next logical step, and studies were initiated over 30 years ago to explore the possibility of dopaminergic cell transplantation. In this Review, we outline the history of this therapeutic approach to PD and highlight the lessons that we have learned en route. We discuss how the best clinical outcomes have been obtained with fetal ventral mesencephalic allografts, while acknowledging inconsistencies in the results owing to problems in trial design, patient selection, tissue preparation, and immunotherapy used post-grafting. We conclude by discussing the challenges of bringing the new generation of stem cell-derived dopamine cells to the clinic.
REST Suppression Mediates Neural Conversion of Adult Human Fibroblasts Via MicroRNA-dependent and -independent Pathways EMBO Molecular Medicine. | Pubmed ID: 28646119 Direct conversion of human fibroblasts into mature and functional neurons, termed induced neurons (iNs), was achieved for the first time 6 years ago. This technology offers a promising shortcut for obtaining patient- and disease-specific neurons for disease modeling, drug screening, and other biomedical applications. However, fibroblasts from adult donors do not reprogram as easily as fetal donors, and no current reprogramming approach is sufficiently efficient to allow the use of this technology using patient-derived material for large-scale applications. Here, we investigate the difference in reprogramming requirements between fetal and adult human fibroblasts and identify REST as a major reprogramming barrier in adult fibroblasts. Via functional experiments where we overexpress and knockdown the REST-controlled neuron-specific microRNAs miR-9 and miR-124, we show that the effect of REST inhibition is only partially mediated via microRNA up-regulation. Transcriptional analysis confirmed that REST knockdown activates an overlapping subset of neuronal genes as microRNA overexpression and also a distinct set of neuronal genes that are not activated via microRNA overexpression. Based on this, we developed an optimized one-step method to efficiently reprogram dermal fibroblasts from elderly individuals using a single-vector system and demonstrate that it is possible to obtain iNs of high yield and purity from aged individuals with a range of familial and sporadic neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's, Huntington's, as well as Alzheimer's disease.
Direct Neuronal Reprogramming for Disease Modeling Studies Using Patient-Derived Neurons: What Have We Learned? Frontiers in Neuroscience. | Pubmed ID: 29033781 Direct neuronal reprogramming, by which a neuron is formed via direct conversion from a somatic cell without going through a pluripotent intermediate stage, allows for the possibility of generating patient-derived neurons. A unique feature of these so-called induced neurons (iNs) is the potential to maintain aging and epigenetic signatures of the donor, which is critical given that many diseases of the CNS are age related. Here, we review the published literature on the work that has been undertaken using iNs to model human brain disorders. Furthermore, as disease-modeling studies using this direct neuronal reprogramming approach are becoming more widely adopted, it is important to assess the criteria that are used to characterize the iNs, especially in relation to the extent to which they are mature adult neurons. In particular: i) what constitutes an iN cell, ii) which stages of conversion offer the earliest/optimal time to assess features that are specific to neurons and/or a disorder and iii) whether generating subtype-specific iNs is critical to the disease-related features that iNs express. Finally, we discuss the range of potential biomedical applications that can be explored using patient-specific models of neurological disorders with iNs, and the challenges that will need to be overcome in order to realize these applications.