Articles by Jared S. Bushman in JoVE
Toluidine Blue Staining of Resin-Embedded Sections for Evaluation of Peripheral Nerve Morphology Adel B. Ghnenis1, Richard E. Czaikowski1, Zhaojie J. Zhang2, Jared S. Bushman1 1School of Pharmacy, University of Wyoming, 2Department of Zoology and Physiology, University of Wyoming Here we present a protocol to visualize fine structures of peripheral nerves by obtaining and staining 1-2 µm sections with toluidine blue
Other articles by Jared S. Bushman on PubMed
Fibrin Glue As a Stabilization Strategy in Peripheral Nerve Repair when Using Porous Nerve Guidance Conduits Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine. | Pubmed ID: 28389905 Porous conduits provide a protected pathway for nerve regeneration, while still allowing exchange of nutrients and wastes. However, pore sizes >30 µm may permit fibrous tissue infiltration into the conduit, which may impede axonal regeneration. Coating the conduit with Fibrin Glue (FG) is one option for controlling the conduit's porosity. FG is extensively used in clinical peripheral nerve repair, as a tissue sealant, filler and drug-delivery matrix. Here, we compared the performance of FG to an alternative, hyaluronic acid (HA) as a coating for porous conduits, using uncoated porous conduits and reverse autografts as control groups. The uncoated conduit walls had pores with a diameter of 60 to 70 µm that were uniformly covered by either FG or HA coatings. In vitro, FG coatings degraded twice as fast as HA coatings. In vivo studies in a 1 cm rat sciatic nerve model showed FG coating resulted in poor axonal density (993 ± 854 #/mm), negligible fascicular area (0.03 ± 0.04 mm), minimal percent wet muscle mass recovery (16 ± 1 in gastrocnemius and 15 ± 5 in tibialis anterior) and G-ratio (0.73 ± 0.01). Histology of FG-coated conduits showed excessive fibrous tissue infiltration inside the lumen, and fibrin capsule formation around the conduit. Although FG has been shown to promote nerve regeneration in non-porous conduits, we found that as a coating for porous conduits in vivo, FG encourages scar tissue infiltration that impedes nerve regeneration. This is a significant finding considering the widespread use of FG in peripheral nerve repair.