In JoVE (1)
Articles by Jenna K. Zalewski in JoVE
الجمع بين الرطب وتقنيات مختبر الجافة لتوجيه بلورة البروتينات كبيرة ملفوف لفائف تحتوي على Jenna K. Zalewski1, Simone Heber1,2, Joshua H. Mo1, Keith O'Conor1, Jeffrey D. Hildebrand1, Andrew P. VanDemark1 1Department of Biological Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, 2Institute of Structural Biology, German Research Center for Environmental Health
Other articles by Jenna K. Zalewski on PubMed
Structure of a Highly Conserved Domain of Rock1 Required for Shroom-mediated Regulation of Cell Morphology PloS One. 2013 | Pubmed ID: 24349032 Rho-associated coiled coil containing protein kinase (Rho-kinase or Rock) is a well-defined determinant of actin organization and dynamics in most animal cells characterized to date. One of the primary effectors of Rock is non-muscle myosin II. Activation of Rock results in increased contractility of myosin II and subsequent changes in actin architecture and cell morphology. The regulation of Rock is thought to occur via autoinhibition of the kinase domain via intramolecular interactions between the N-terminus and the C-terminus of the kinase. This autoinhibited state can be relieved via proteolytic cleavage, binding of lipids to a Pleckstrin Homology domain near the C-terminus, or binding of GTP-bound RhoA to the central coiled-coil region of Rock. Recent work has identified the Shroom family of proteins as an additional regulator of Rock either at the level of cellular distribution or catalytic activity or both. The Shroom-Rock complex is conserved in most animals and is essential for the formation of the neural tube, eye, and gut in vertebrates. To address the mechanism by which Shroom and Rock interact, we have solved the structure of the coiled-coil region of Rock that binds to Shroom proteins. Consistent with other observations, the Shroom binding domain is a parallel coiled-coil dimer. Using biochemical approaches, we have identified a large patch of residues that contribute to Shrm binding. Their orientation suggests that there may be two independent Shrm binding sites on opposing faces of the coiled-coil region of Rock. Finally, we show that the binding surface is essential for Rock colocalization with Shroom and for Shroom-mediated changes in cell morphology.
The Interaction Between Shroom3 and Rho-kinase is Required for Neural Tube Morphogenesis in Mice Biology Open. Aug, 2014 | Pubmed ID: 25171888 Shroom3 is an actin-associated regulator of cell morphology that is required for neural tube closure, formation of the lens placode, and gut morphogenesis in mice and has been linked to chronic kidney disease and directional heart looping in humans. Numerous studies have shown that Shroom3 likely regulates these developmental processes by directly binding to Rho-kinase and facilitating the assembly of apically positioned contractile actomyosin networks. We have characterized the molecular basis for the neural tube defects caused by an ENU-induced mutation that results in an arginine-to-cysteine amino acid substitution at position 1838 of mouse Shroom3. We show that this substitution has no effect on Shroom3 expression or localization but ablates Rock binding and renders Shroom3 non-functional for the ability to regulate cell morphology. Our results indicate that Rock is the major downstream effector of Shroom3 in the process of neural tube morphogenesis. Based on sequence conservation and biochemical analysis, we predict that the Shroom-Rock interaction is highly conserved across animal evolution and represents a signaling module that is utilized in a variety of biological processes.
Structure of the Shroom-Rho Kinase Complex Reveals a Binding Interface with Monomeric Shroom That Regulates Cell Morphology and Stimulates Kinase Activity The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Dec, 2016 | Pubmed ID: 27758857 Shroom-mediated remodeling of the actomyosin cytoskeleton is a critical driver of cellular shape and tissue morphology that underlies the development of many tissues including the neural tube, eye, intestines, and vasculature. Shroom uses a conserved SD2 domain to direct the subcellular localization of Rho-associated kinase (Rock), which in turn drives changes in the cytoskeleton and cellular morphology through its ability to phosphorylate and activate non-muscle myosin II. Here, we present the structure of the human Shroom-Rock binding module, revealing an unexpected stoichiometry for Shroom in which two Shroom SD2 domains bind independent surfaces on Rock. Mutation of interfacial residues impaired Shroom-Rock binding in vitro and resulted in altered remodeling of the cytoskeleton and loss of Shroom-mediated changes in cellular morphology. Additionally, we provide the first direct evidence that Shroom can function as a Rock activator. These data provide molecular insight into the Shroom-Rock interface and demonstrate that Shroom directly participates in regulating cytoskeletal dynamics, adding to its known role in Rock localization.