Articles by Jennifer T. Patel in JoVE
Use of Stopped-Flow Fluorescence and Labeled Nucleotides to Analyze the ATP Turnover Cycle of Kinesins Jennifer T. Patel1, Hannah R. Belsham1, Alexandra J. Rathbone1, Claire T. Friel1 1School of Life Sciences, University of Nottingham Kinesins are characterized by nucleotide-dependent interaction with microtubules: a cycle of ATP turnover coupled to a cycle of microtubule interaction. Here, we describe protocols to analyze the kinetics of individual nucleotide transitions in the ATP turnover cycle of a kinesin using fluorescently labeled nucleotides and stopped-flow fluorescence.
Other articles by Jennifer T. Patel on PubMed
Mammalian SUN Protein Interaction Networks at the Inner Nuclear Membrane and Their Role in Laminopathy Disease Processes The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Jan, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 19933576 The nuclear envelope (NE) LINC complex, in mammals comprised of SUN domain and nesprin proteins, provides a direct connection between the nuclear lamina and the cytoskeleton, which contributes to nuclear positioning and cellular rigidity. SUN1 and SUN2 interact with lamin A, but lamin A is only required for NE localization of SUN2, and it remains unclear how SUN1 is anchored. Here, we identify emerin and short nesprin-2 isoforms as novel nucleoplasmic binding partners of SUN1/2. These have overlapping binding sites distinct from the lamin A binding site. However, we demonstrate that tight association of SUN1 with the nuclear lamina depends upon a short motif within residues 209-228, a region that does not interact significantly with known SUN1 binding partners. Moreover, SUN1 localizes correctly in cells lacking emerin. Importantly then, the major determinant of SUN1 NE localization has yet to be identified. We further find that a subset of lamin A mutations, associated with laminopathies Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD) and Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS), disrupt lamin A interaction with SUN1 and SUN2. Despite this, NE localization of SUN1 and SUN2 is not impaired in cell lines from either class of patients. Intriguingly, SUN1 expression at the NE is instead enhanced in a significant proportion of HGPS but not EDMD cells and strongly correlates with pre-lamin A accumulation due to preferential interaction of SUN1 with pre-lamin A. We propose that these different perturbations in lamin A-SUN protein interactions may underlie the opposing effects of EDMD and HGPS mutations on nuclear and cellular mechanics.
Mitotic Phosphorylation of SUN1 Loosens Its Connection with the Nuclear Lamina While the LINC Complex Remains Intact Nucleus (Austin, Tex.). Aug, 2014 | Pubmed ID: 25157413 At the onset mitosis in higher eukaryotes, the nuclear envelope (NE) undergoes dramatic deconstruction to allow separation of duplicated chromosomes. Studies have shown that during this process of nuclear envelope breakdown (NEBD), the extensive protein networks of the nuclear lamina are disassembled through phosphorylation of lamins and several inner nuclear membrane (INM) proteins. The LINC complex, composed of SUN and nesprin proteins, is involved in multiple interactions at the NE and plays vital roles in nuclear and cellular mechanics by connecting the nucleus to the cytoskeleton. Here, we show that SUN1, located in the INM, undergoes mitosis-specific phosphorylation on at least 3 sites within its nucleoplasmic N-terminus. We further identify Cdk1 as the kinase responsible for serine 48 and 333 phosphorylation, while serine 138 is phosphorylated by Plk1. In mitotic cells, SUN1 loses its interaction with N-terminal domain binding partners lamin A/C, emerin, and short nesprin-2 isoforms. Furthermore, a triple phosphomimetic SUN1 mutant displays increased solubility and reduced retention at the NE. In contrast, the central LINC complex interaction between the SUN1 C-terminus and the KASH domain of nesprin-2 is maintained during mitosis. Together, these data support a model whereby mitotic phosphorylation of SUN1 disrupts interactions with nucleoplasmic binding partners, promoting disassembly of the nuclear lamina and, potentially, its chromatin interactions. At the same time, our data add to an emerging picture that the core LINC complex plays an active role in NEBD.