In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (44)

Articles by Jennifer McGrath in JoVE

 JoVE Bioengineering

Quantification of Strain in a Porcine Model of Skin Expansion Using Multi-View Stereo and Isogeometric Kinematics

1Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, 2Division of Plastic Surgery, Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, 3Mechanical Engineering, Bioengineering, Cardiothoracic Surgery, Stanford University


JoVE 55052

Other articles by Jennifer McGrath on PubMed

Is the Palliative Performance Scale a Useful Predictor of Mortality in a Heterogeneous Hospice Population?

Journal of Palliative Medicine. Jun, 2005  |  Pubmed ID: 15992191

Hospices provide care to patients with a wide range of prognoses, and must develop care plans that anticipate each patient's likely illness trajectory. However, the tools available to guide prognostication and care planning in this population have limited data to support their use. For instance, one of the most widely-used prognostic tools, the Palliative Performance Scale (PPS), has been studied primarily in inpatient settings and in patients with cancer. Its prognostic value in a heterogeneous US hospice population is unknown.

Comparability of Spot Versus Band Electrodes for Impedance Cardiography

Journal of Psychophysiology. Jul, 2005  |  Pubmed ID: 27867248

Although band and spot electrodes have been compared in prior research, they have not been evaluated (a) at identical anatomical locations, (b) during a single laboratory session, (c) with measures taken in close temporal proximity, (d) using a single impedance cardiograph unit, or (e) using sufficiently powerful statistical tests. Thirty-one healthy young adults completed a psychophysiological assessment which consisted of baseline, mental arithmetic stressor, and recovery conditions. Data from spot and band electrodes were collected by alternating between electrode types every minute of the experiment. Correlations between spot and band electrodes at absolute levels of all cardiovascular measures (cardiac output, impedance derivative, basal impedance level, Heather index, heart rate, left ventricular ejection time, pre-ejection period, stroke volume) were of high magnitude (ravg = .78), while the correlations for difference scores were lower (ravg = .50). Analyses of mean levels indicated spot electrodes yielded significantly lower values for the impedance derivative, Heather index, and basal impedance, and higher values for cardiac output and stroke volume, than band electrodes. The advantages and disadvantages associated with spot and band electrode configurations, as well as their use in ambulatory recording, are discussed.

Individual Versus Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status and Race As Predictors of Adolescent Ambulatory Blood Pressure and Heart Rate

Social Science & Medicine (1982). Sep, 2006  |  Pubmed ID: 16733078

Socioeconomic status (SES) disparities are linked to increased cardiovascular disease risk. Although typically considered an individual or family indicator, SES alternatively can be derived from neighborhood characteristics. Previous research has found both family and neighborhood SES predict laboratory blood pressure responses in youth. The question remains as to whether this SES gradient predicts blood pressure during daily living situations. We evaluated individual versus neighborhood SES and race as predictors of ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate. Participants were recruited from two schools in Pittsburgh, diverse in terms of both race and SES. Adolescents' (N=212, 14.5 years, 50% black) cardiovascular responses were measured at school and home. Individual (parent education, household income) and neighborhood SES indices (derived from 78 census tracts: percentage with high school degree or less, percentage below poverty) were assessed. A neighborhood index of race based on the proportion of blacks in the census tract was also derived as a counterpart to individuals' race. Multi-level modeling indicated neighborhood income predicted systolic blood pressure. Individual race predicted diastolic blood pressure. Individual income and education, and neighborhood race each predicted heart rate. These results have important public health implications as they suggest individual and neighborhood SES and race are linked to cardiovascular risk disparities as early as adolescence.

A Comprehensive View of Sex-specific Issues Related to Cardiovascular Disease

CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association Journal = Journal De L'Association Medicale Canadienne. Mar, 2007  |  Pubmed ID: 17353516

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality in women. In fact, CVD is responsible for a third of all deaths of women worldwide and half of all deaths of women over 50 years of age in developing countries. The prevalence of CVD risk factor precursors is increasing in children. Retrospective analyses suggest that there are some clinically relevant differences between women and men in terms of prevalence, presentation, management and outcomes of the disease, but little is known about why CVD affects women and men differently. For instance, women with diabetes have a significantly higher CVD mortality rate than men with diabetes. Similarly, women with atrial fibrillation are at greater risk of stroke than men with atrial fibrillation. Historically, women have been underrepresented in clinical trials. The lack of good trial evidence concerning sex-specific outcomes has led to assumptions about CVD treatment in women, which in turn may have resulted in inadequate diagnoses and suboptimal management, greatly affecting outcomes. This knowledge gap may also explain why cardiovascular health in women is not improving as fast as that of men. Over the last decades, mortality rates in men have steadily declined, while those in women remained stable. It is also becoming increasingly evident that gender differences in cultural, behavioural, psychosocial and socioeconomic status are responsible, to various degrees, for the observed differences between women and men. However, the interaction between sex-and gender-related factors and CVD outcomes in women remains largely unknown.

The Influence of School Smoking Policies on Student Tobacco Use

Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine. Sep, 2007  |  Pubmed ID: 17768283

To investigate the association between smoking behavior among secondary school students and school smoking policies.

Improving Outcomes in Pediatric Trauma Care: Essential Characteristics of the Trauma Center

The Journal of Trauma. Dec, 2007  |  Pubmed ID: 18091206

The best outcome after pediatric injury can be anticipated when the entire trauma team is prepared, knowledgeable, and appreciative of the unique aspects of pediatric trauma and pays strict attention to all aspects of the care of the injured child. Five aspects should be considered essential elements in the delivery of care by any trauma team: preparation, equipment, and training; prevention of secondary insults after brain injury; the ability to recognize when nonoperative therapy should not be attempted or when it should be abandoned; consideration of the psychological impact of injury on a child; and, the role of trauma centers in injury prevention. Each of these areas encompasses important unanswered questions.

Association Between Cigarette Smoking and C-reactive Protein in a Representative, Population-based Sample of Adolescents

Nicotine & Tobacco Research : Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. Mar, 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 18324572

Although related to inflammatory markers in adults, little is known about the association between cigarette smoking and C-reactive protein (CRP) in adolescent smokers. We examined the association between high-sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) concentrations and smoking in youth. We used data from a cross-sectional, province-wide survey of a representative sample of youth conducted in Quebec, Canada, in 1999. Data were collected in self-report questionnaires completed by participants and their parents. Participants provided a fasting blood sample, and anthropometric measures were undertaken by trained technicians. The present analysis pertains to 1,501 adolescents aged 13 and 16 years who completed questionnaires and for whom blood samples were available. The independent association between a six-category indicator of smoking status and elevated hs-CRP, defined as a value at least in the 90th percentile of the age- and sex-specific CRP distribution, was assessed in multiple logistic regression analyses controlling for potential confounders. Relative to never-smokers, the odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for puffers (i.e., never smoked a whole cigarette), those who smoked but not in the past month, light past-month smokers, moderate past-month smokers, and heavy past-month smokers were 1.04 (0.55-1.98), 1.76 (1.06-2.94), 1.39 (0.70-2.76), 2.07 (0.96-4.42), and 2.40 (1.18-4.88), respectively. Our data suggest a positive association between smoking status and elevated CRP in adolescents, and in particular among heavier past-month smokers. Damage related to cigarette smoking may begin soon after tobacco use initiation, reinforcing the preventive message that no level of smoking is safe in youth.

Prevalence of Cardiometabolic Risk Factors by Weight Status in a Population-based Sample of Quebec Children and Adolescents

The Canadian Journal of Cardiology. Jul, 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 18612501

There are few data on the prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors in population-based samples of overweight and obese youth.

Nicotine Dependence Symptoms Among Young Never-smokers Exposed to Secondhand Tobacco Smoke

Addictive Behaviors. Dec, 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 18760878

To extend previous observations that secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) is associated with nicotine markers in children, we investigated if SHS exposure is associated with self-reports of nicotine dependence (ND) symptoms among young never-smokers.

School Opportunities and Physical Activity Frequency in Nine Year Old Children

International Journal of Public Health. 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19305948

To examine the association between physical activity (PA) opportunities at school and participation in PA outside of school physical education (PE) classes among 9 year old children.

Group Exercise Mode and Health-related Quality of Life Among Healthy Adults

Journal of Advanced Nursing. Mar, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 21077930

This paper is a report of a study conducted to identify the difference between mode of group exercise and health-related quality of life (HRQOL), to determine the associations between mode of group exercise chosen by participants and their demographic characteristics, and to identify themes from narrative comments for each group exercise modality.

Is Nasal Mucoperiosteal Closure Necessary in Cleft Palate Repair?

Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Feb, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 21285779

The goals of successful palate repair include optimizing speech and feeding, mitigating adverse maxillary growth effect, and avoiding fistulae. The necessity of vomerine and/or nasal-side mucosa repair has not been tested. The purpose of this study was to compare the outcome of palate repairs with and without nasal mucoperiosteal closure. The authors used the null hypothesis.

An Investigation of Social and Pharmacological Exposure to Secondhand Tobacco Smoke As Possible Predictors of Perceived Nicotine Dependence, Smoking Susceptibility, and Smoking Expectancies Among Never-smoking Youth

Nicotine & Tobacco Research : Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. Oct, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 21622492

Recent studies evidenced that adolescent never-smokers exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) endorsed nicotine dependence symptoms. Other studies showed that SHS exposure measured with biomarkers among never-smokers independently predicted withdrawal sensations and prospective smoking initiation. The aim of the present study was to replicate and extend these findings by investigating whether social and pharmacological measures of SHS exposure predicted precursors to smoking among never-smoking adolescents.

Short Sleep Duration is Independently Associated with Overweight and Obesity in Quebec Children

Canadian Journal of Public Health = Revue Canadienne De Sante Publique. Sep-Oct, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 22032104

To investigate the association of sleep duration with adiposity and to determine if caloric intake and physical activity mediate this relationship.

Cohort Profile: the Quebec Adipose and Lifestyle Investigation in Youth Cohort

International Journal of Epidemiology. Dec, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 21785124

Free Tissue Transfer in the Hypercoagulable Patient: a Review of 58 Flaps

Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Feb, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 21987047

Hypercoagulability or thrombophilia is a group of inherited or acquired conditions associated with a predisposition to thrombosis. Most hypercoagulable states alter the blood itself or affect the vasculature, directly creating a detrimental environment for microsurgery. The authors present their series of hypercoagulable patients who underwent free flap reconstruction.

Generation of Immigration and Body Mass Index in Canadian Youth

Journal of Pediatric Psychology. Sep, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22366576

To investigate the role of acculturation, as measured by generational status, on body mass index (BMI) in a sample of Canadian youth.

Stability of the Diurnal Cortisol Profile in Children and Adolescents

Psychoneuroendocrinology. May, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22658393

The diurnal cortisol profile has been implicated in multiple physical and mental health conditions in children and adolescents; however, current knowledge regarding the stability of the diurnal cortisol profile is largely based on adults. Developmental changes throughout childhood and adolescence warrant examination of the stability of the diurnal cortisol profile during this stage in the lifecourse. The aim of the present study was to conduct a comprehensive evaluation of the diurnal cortisol profile in children and adolescents. Participants (N=233; M=12.40, SD=1.83; 44.2% girls) in the Healthy Heart Project collected saliva samples, completed demographic questionnaires, and recorded bed and waking time. Intra-class correlations were calculated to evaluate the stability of aggregate and single sample measures of the diurnal cortisol profile. Total cortisol concentration (AUC(TG), AUC(AG)) and maximum sample were the most stable cortisol measures (ICC(avg)=0.54). Dynamic measures (AUC(I), slope; ICC(avg)=0.22) and other single sample measures (awake, lunch, dinner, bedtime, morning random, day random; ICC(avg)=0.28) were less stable. Of the developmentally relevant covariates tested, sleep duration, adrenarche, and time of awakening were most associated with cortisol values. Altogether, the diurnal cortisol profile yielded moderate to high stability in children and adolescents. These findings can inform methodological decisions regarding cortisol sampling protocols for children and adolescents.

Differential Closure of the Spheno-occipital Synchondrosis in Syndromic Craniosynostosis

Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Nov, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22777037

The spheno-occipital synchondrosis is a driver of cranial base and facial growth. Its premature fusion has been associated with midface hypoplasia in animal models. The authors reviewed computed tomographic scans of patients with Apert and Muenke syndrome, craniosynostosis syndromes with midface hypoplasia, to assess premature fusion of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis when compared with normal controls.

Measurement Fidelity of Heart Rate Variability Signal Processing: the Devil is in the Details

International Journal of Psychophysiology : Official Journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology. Oct, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22820268

Heart rate variability (HRV) is a particularly valuable quantitative marker of the flexibility and balance of the autonomic nervous system. Significant advances in software programs to automatically derive HRV have led to its extensive use in psychophysiological research. However, there is a lack of systematic comparisons across software programs used to derive HRV indices. Further, researchers report meager details on important signal processing decisions making synthesis across studies challenging. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the measurement fidelity of time- and frequency-domain HRV indices derived from three predominant signal processing software programs commonly used in clinical and research settings. Triplicate ECG recordings were derived from 20 participants using identical data acquisition hardware. Among the time-domain indices, there was strong to excellent correspondence (ICC(avg)=0.93) for SDNN, SDANN, SDNNi, rMSSD, and pNN50. The frequency-domain indices yielded excellent correspondence (ICC(avg)=0.91) for LF, HF, and LF/HF ratio, except for VLF which exhibited poor correspondence (ICC(avg)=0.19). Stringent user-decisions and technical specifications for nuanced HRV processing details are essential to ensure measurement fidelity across signal processing software programs.

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity Disorder Subtype Differentially Predicts Smoking Expectancies in Adolescents

The Journal of Adolescent Health : Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine. Oct, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22999841

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is an established risk factor for smoking; however, no studies have considered whether precursors to smoking behavior differ among adolescents with ADHD. Smoking expectancies are beliefs about the potential consequences of smoking, and they develop before smoking initiation. ADHD characteristics may contribute to the formation of expectancies and eventual smoking behavior. We evaluated whether clinical levels of ADHD subtypes differentially predicted smoking expectancies.

Objective and Subjective Socioeconomic Gradients Exist for Sleep Quality, Sleep Latency, Sleep Duration, Weekend Oversleep, and Daytime Sleepiness in Adults

Behavioral Sleep Medicine. Apr, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23136841

Socioeconomic gradients exist for multiple health outcomes. Lower objective socioeconomic position (SEP), whether measured by income, education, or occupation, is associated with inadequate sleep. Less is known about whether one's perceived ranking of their social status, or subjective SEP, affects sleep. This study examined whether a subjective socioeconomic gradient exists for sleep while controlling for objective SEP. Participants (N = 177; age, M = 45.3 years, SD = 6.3 years) completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, MacArthur Ladder, and other self-report measures to assess sleep and objective SEP. Subjective SEP trumped objective SEP as a better predictor of sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, and weekend oversleep. These findings highlight the need to expand our framework to better understand the mechanisms underlying socioeconomic gradients and sleep.

Predictors of Nicotine Dependence Symptoms Among Never-smoking Adolescents: a Longitudinal Analysis from the Nicotine Dependence in Teens Study

Drug and Alcohol Dependence. Jun, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23195923

Recent cross-sectional studies suggest some adolescents who have never smoked cigarettes experience nicotine dependence (ND) symptoms and that exposure to second-hand smoke, social exposure to smoking, and alcohol use are plausible correlates. The aim of this study was to replicate and extend these findings by investigating possible predictors of ND symptoms longitudinally.

Blood Pressure and Pain Sensitivity in Children and Adolescents

Psychophysiology. Jun, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23517306

Elevated blood pressure is associated with diminished pain sensitivity. While this finding is well established in adults, it is less clear when the relation between blood pressure and pain sensitivity emerges across the life course. Evidence suggests this phenomenon may exist during childhood. Children (N = 309; 56% boys) aged 10-15 years and their parents participated. Blood pressure readings were taken during a resting baseline. Maximum pain intensity was rated using a visual analogue scale (rated 0-10) in response to a finger prick pain induction. Parent-measured resting blood pressure was inversely associated with boys' pain ratings only. Cross-sectionally, lower pain ratings were related to higher SBP, univariately. Longitudinally, pain ratings predicted higher DBP, even after controlling for covariates. Determining when and how the relation between blood pressure and pain sensitivity emerges may elucidate the pathophysiology of hypertension.

Delayed Autologous Breast Reconstruction: Factors Which Influence Patient Decision Making

Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery : JPRAS. Nov, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23886556

Autologous breast reconstruction timing continues to be controversial. The purpose of this study was to examine delayed autologous breast reconstruction at a center favouring immediate reconstruction to better understand factors driving the decision to delay reconstruction.

Objective and Subjective Socioeconomic Gradients Exist for Sleep in Children and Adolescents

Health Psychology : Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association. Mar, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 23730721

Socioeconomic position (SEP) is inversely associated with many health outcomes, yielding a socioeconomic gradient in health. In adults, low SEP is associated with short sleep duration, poorer sleep quality, and difficulty initiating and maintaining sleep. Relatively little is known about this relation in youth. The aim of the present study was to examine whether socioeconomic gradients exist for various sleep indices among a healthy sample of children and adolescents.

Subjective Socioeconomic Status and Adolescent Health: a Meta-analysis

Health Psychology : Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association. May, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 24245837

To comprehensively and quantitatively examine the association between subjective socioeconomic status (SES) and health outcomes during adolescence.

Perceived Racial Discrimination and Hypertension: a Comprehensive Systematic Review

Health Psychology : Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association. Jan, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 24417692

Discrimination is posited to underlie racial disparities in hypertension. Extant literature suggests a possible association between racial discrimination and blood pressure, although inconsistent findings have been reported. The aim of this comprehensive systematic review was to quantitatively evaluate the association between perceived racial discrimination with hypertensive status and systolic, diastolic, and ambulatory blood pressure.

Sampling Compliance for Cortisol Upon Awakening in Children and Adolescents

Psychoneuroendocrinology. Feb, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 24485477

Compliance with awakening salivary sampling is important for precise measurement of the diurnal cortisol profile. During childhood and adolescence, developmental factors influence sampling upon awakening (awake0) due to school routine, sleep/wake patterns, and age related cortisol changes. In the present study, children and adolescents' sampling compliance of awakening cortisol was evaluated using accelerometry. Children and adolescents (N=201; 45.3% female; 8-18 years; Mage=12.68 years, SD=2.03) participating in the Healthy Heart Project collected saliva samples, wore a tri-axle accelerometer, and completed demographic questionnaires. Intra-class correlations derived to examine awake0 sampling compliance indicated children and adolescents were highly compliant (ICC=.98). In children, a delay in awake0 sampling was associated with a steeper diurnal slope (β=-.23, p=.037) and greater awake0 cortisol (β=.24, p=.024); this was not observed in adolescents. In summary, children and adolescents are compliant with awakening salivary sampling. Sampling delay, particularly in children, and time of awakening influenced measures of the diurnal cortisol profile. These findings inform future studies assessing the diurnal cortisol profile in children and adolescents.

Short-term Heart Rate Variability in a Population-based Sample of 10-year-old Children

Pediatric Cardiology. Jan, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25056158

Heart rate variability (HRV) is a non-invasive quantitative marker of cardiac autonomic function derived from continuous electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings. Normative HRV values and development factors have not been established in pediatric populations. The objective was to derive referent time- and frequency-domain HRV values for a population-based sample of children. Children aged 9-11 years (N = 1,036) participated in the Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development cohort cardiovascular health screening. Registered nurses measured anthropometrics (height, weight) and children wore an ambulatory Holter monitor to continuously record an ECG signal. HRV variables included time (SDNN, pNN50, RMSSD, SDANN) and frequency (HF, LF, LF/HF ratio) domain variables. Normative HRV values, stratified by age, sex, and heart rate, are presented. Greater heart rate (β avg  = -0.60, R avg (2)  = 0.39), pubertal maturation (β avg = -0.11, R avg (2)  = 0.01), later ECG recording times (β avg = -0.19, R avg (2)  = 0.07), and higher diastolic blood pressure (β avg = -0.11, R avg (2)  = 0.01) were significantly associated with reduced HRV in 10-year-old children. The normative HRV values permit clinicians to monitor, describe, and establish pediatric nosologies in primary care and research settings, which may improve treatment of diseases associated with HRV in children. By better understanding existing values, the practical applicability of HRV among clinicians will be enhanced. Lastly, developmental (e.g., puberty) and procedural (e.g., recording time) factors were identified that will improve recording procedures and interpretation of results.

Community, Family, and Subjective Socioeconomic Status: Relative Status and Adolescent Health

Health Psychology : Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association. Jun, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25222085

Relative socioeconomic status (SES) may be an important social determinant of health. The current study aimed to examine how relative SES, as measured by subjective SES, income inequality, and individual SES relative to others in the community, is associated with a wide range of adolescent health outcomes, after controlling for objective family SES.

Province-level Income Inequality and Health Outcomes in Canadian Adolescents

Journal of Pediatric Psychology. Mar, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25324533

To examine the effects of provincial income inequality (disparity between rich and poor), independent of provincial income and family socioeconomic status, on multiple adolescent health outcomes.

Development and Psychometric Properties of the Social Smoking Situations (S(3)) Scale: an Enhanced Measure of Social Exposure to Smoking During Adolescence

Addictive Behaviors. Feb, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25452074

Common questions of exposure to smoking, such as number of parents, siblings, or friends who smoke, fail to capture the contexts in which the exposure occurs. This study developed the Social Smoking Situations (S(3)) Scale to more precisely measure contextual exposure to smoking during adolescence. Informed by the cue-reactivity literature and using informal focus groups, items of contextual exposure to smoking were generated for three categories of smokers: parents, siblings, and peers. Participants (N=761; Mage=15.6, SD=1.3; 61.4% female) were recruited as part of the AdoQuest Study in Montreal, QC. Principal components analysis was used to identify the component structure of the parent, sibling, and peer versions of the S(3) Scale. S(3) scores were computed subsequently to test their association with smoking behavior and smoking expectancies. Further, S(3) scores were compared with common questions (i.e., number of smokers) via univariate modeling to determine which would generate larger estimates of effect size when predicting smoking behavior and smoking expectancies. Overall, S(3) scores generated larger estimates than common questions; this finding was consistent across the parent (ORavg: 2.59 vs. 1.36), sibling (ORavg: 3.44 vs. 1.59), and peer (ORavg: 3.89 vs. 1.38) versions. The S(3) Scale is a new psychometrically sound instrument that may provide a more robust measurement of social exposure to smoking during adolescence. Importantly, it has the potential to strengthen prevention programming and intervention efforts aimed at adolescents, as it could depict a more precise portrait of the individual and contextual sources of social exposure to smoking.

Autonomic Dysfunction: a Possible Pathophysiological Pathway Underlying the Association Between Sleep and Obesity in Children At-risk for Obesity

Journal of Youth and Adolescence. Feb, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25480401

While mounting evidence suggests that sleep plays an important role in the etiology of obesity, the underlying pathogenic pathways are complex and unresolved. Experimental sleep deprivation studies demonstrate sympathovagal imbalance, indicative of diminished parasympathetic activity and/or heightened sympathetic activity, is consequent to poor sleep. Further, obese children exhibit sympathovagal imbalance, particularly during the night, compared to non-obese children. The question remains whether sympathovagal imbalance is one potential pathophysiological pathway underlying the association between sleep and obesity. The aim of the present study was to examine whether sympathovagal imbalance contributed to the association between sleep and obesity in children. Participants included 564 children aged 10 to 12 years (M = 11.67, SD = 0.95; 43.5% girls) from the QUALITY Cohort, a longitudinal study of children at-risk for the development of obesity. While children were at-risk due to confirmed parental obesity status, 57.7% of children were of normal body mass index (5-85th percentile). Sleep duration, sleep timing, and sleep disturbances were based on child- and parent-report. Anthropometrics were measured for central adiposity (waist circumference) and body composition (body mass index, fat mass index). Sympathovagal imbalance was derived from heart rate variability spectral analyses. Estimated path coefficients revealed that sympathovagal imbalance partially contributed to the association between poor sleep (later bedtimes, sleep-disordered breathing) and obesity. These findings highlight the importance of better understanding sympathovagal imbalance and its role in the etiology and maintenance of obesity. Future research should consider investigating nocturnal sympathovagal balance in youth.

Volumetric Changes in Cranial Vault Expansion: Comparison of Fronto-orbital Advancement and Posterior Cranial Vault Distraction Osteogenesis

Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Jun, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25724062

Posterior cranial vault distraction osteogenesis has recently been introduced to treat patients with multisuture syndromic craniosynostosis and is believed to provide greater gains in intracranial volume. This study provides volumetric analysis to determine the gains in intracranial volume produced by this modality.

Poor Sleep As a Pathophysiological Pathway Underlying the Association Between Stressful Experiences and the Diurnal Cortisol Profile Among Children and Adolescents

Psychoneuroendocrinology. Jul, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25889840

Recent evidence suggests that poor sleep is a potential pathway underlying the association between stressful experiences and the diurnal cortisol profile. However, existing findings are largely limited to adults. The present study examines whether poor sleep (duration, quality) mediates the relation between stressful experiences and the diurnal cortisol profile in children and adolescents. Children and adolescents (N = 220, M(age) = 12.62) provided six saliva samples over two days to derive cortisol indices (bedtime, AUCAG, AUCTG, slope(MAX)). Perceived stress, stressful life events, self-reported sleep duration, and sleep quality were measured. Using bootstrapping analyses, sleep quality mediated the relation between perceived stress and AUCTG (R(2) = 0.10, F(7, 212) = 3.55, p = .001; 95% BCI[0.09, 1.15]), as well as the relation between stressful life events and AUCTG (R(2) = 0.11, F(7, 212) = 3.69, p = .001; 95% BCI[0.40, 3.82]). These mediation models remained significant after adjusting for sleep duration, suggesting that poor sleep quality underlies the association between stressful experiences and the diurnal cortisol profile in children and adolescents. Longitudinal data combined with objectively-measured sleep is essential to further disentangle the complex association between sleep and stress.

The Role of Smile Train and the Partner Hospital Model in Surgical Safety, Collaboration, and Quality in the Developing World

The Journal of Craniofacial Surgery. Jun, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 26080141

The partner hospital model identifies hospitals in the developing world to educate and enable local surgeons to deliver effective cleft care. This study aimed to determine the outcomes of this model on safety, education, and quality of surgical care.

Frequency and Risk Factors Related to Smoking in Cars with Children Present

Canadian Journal of Public Health = Revue Canadienne De Sante Publique. Jun, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 26680427

Second-hand smoke (SHS) can attain high concentrations in cars. To protect children's health, nine Canadian provinces have enacted legislation prohibiting smoking in privately owned vehicles when children are present; Quebec is the only province with no such legislation. The objective of this study was to estimate the proportion of smokers in Quebec who smoke while travelling in a private vehicle in which children are present, and to compare the characteristics of smokers who do and do not smoke in cars.

Research Review: Executive Function Deficits in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders and Attention-deficit/hyperactivity Disorder - a Meta-analysis

Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines. Feb, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 26251262

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like symptoms are common in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). FASD and ADHD groups both display executive function impairments; however, there is ongoing debate whether the pattern and magnitude of executive function deficits differs between these two types of disorders.

Inter-relation Between Autonomic and HPA Axis Activity in Children and Adolescents

Biological Psychology. May, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 26835595

Stress research in youth typically considers either the autonomic nervous system or HPA axis. However, these systems are highly coordinated and physically interconnected. We examined whether the inter-relation between cardio-autonomic and HPA axis measures was better associated with perceived stress than their singular associations. Children and adolescents (N=201) collected saliva samples to measure cortisol (AUCAG, AUCI, maximum), wore an electrocardiogram monitor for 24h to derive heart rate variability (HRV; LF, HF, LF/HF ratio), and completed the Perceived Stress Scale. The interaction between sympathovagal modulation (LF, LF/HF ratio) and cortisol awakening response (AUCAG, AUCI, maximum) explained significantly greater variance in perceived stress than either stress system alone. Higher sympathovagal modulation combined with higher cortisol awakening response was associated with greater perceived stress. Findings suggest that the inter-relation between cardio-autonomic and HPA axis activity may advance our understanding of how stress impacts health.

Parental Nutrition Knowledge Rather Than Nutrition Label Use Is Associated With Adiposity in Children

Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior. Jul-Aug, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27373860

Determine how parental nutrition label use, label literacy, and nutrition knowledge may be associated with cardiovascular health in parents and their children.

Social Disparities in Children's Exposure to Secondhand Smoke in Privately Owned Vehicles

Tobacco Control. Oct, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27794067

Secondhand smoke (SHS) can quickly attain high concentrations in cars, posing health risks to passengers and especially to children. This paper assesses whether there are social disparities in children's exposure to SHS in privately owned vehicles.

Why So Blue? A Case of Neonatal Cyanosis Due to Congenital Methaemoglobinaemia (HbM Iwate)

BMJ Case Reports. Nov, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27895078

Predictors of Cigarette Smoking Initiation in Early, Middle, and Late Adolescence

The Journal of Adolescent Health : Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine. Mar, 2017  |  Pubmed ID: 28318910

Little is known about age-related differences in risk factors for cigarette smoking initiation. We identified predictors of initiation in early, middle, and late adolescence from among sociodemographic factors, indicators of smoking in the social environment, psychological characteristics, lifestyle indicators, and perceived need for cigarettes.

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