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In JoVE (1)
- Exposure of the Pig CNS for Histological Analysis: A Manual for Decapitation, Skull Opening, and Brain Removal
Other Publications (6)
Articles by Jens-Christian H. Sørensen in JoVE
Exposure of the Pig CNS for Histological Analysis: A Manual for Decapitation, Skull Opening, and Brain Removal
Carsten R. Bjarkam1, Dariusz Orlowski2, Laura Tvilling2, Johannes Bech2, Andreas N. Glud2, Jens-Christian H. Sørensen2
1Department of Neurosurgery, Clinical Institute of Medicine, Aalborg University Hospital, 2Center of Experimental Neuroscience (Cense), Department of Neurosurgery, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital
Other articles by Jens-Christian H. Sørensen on PubMed
Deep Brain Stimulation Electrode Anchoring Using BioGlue((R)), a Protective Electrode Covering, and a Titanium Microplate
Journal of Neuroscience Methods. Feb, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 17953993
The authors present an easily applicable deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrode anchoring technique for use in human and experimental animals. The anchoring technique combines the use of fibrin glue, a two-component surgical adhesive (BioGlue), a protective electrode covering, and a titanium microplate. The BioGlue (CryoLife International, Inc., Kennesaw, GA, USA) hinders unwanted electrode movement during the electrode fixation step and seals the burr hole, while the protective electrode covering protects the electrode under the titanium microplate which keeps the electrode in a permanent position. The described technique further has the advantage of being cosmetically acceptable to the human patient, and furthermore it perfectly adapts to the smaller and irregular-shaped skull in experimental animals. The described technique has clinically been used to implant DBS-electrodes in the subthalamic nucleus for Parkinson disease and is the preferred DBS-electrode anchoring technique for our experimental DBS-studies in the GÃ¶ttingen minipig.
Safety and Function of a New Clinical Intracerebral Microinjection Instrument for Stem Cells and Therapeutics Examined in the GÃ¶ttingen Minipig
Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20051711
A new intracerebral microinjection instrument (IMI) allowing multiple electrophysiologically guided microvolume injections from a single proximal injection path in rats has been adapted to clinical use by coupling the IMI to an FHC microTargeting Manual Drive, designed to be used with standard stereotactic frame-based systems and FHC frameless microTargeting Platforms.
Long-term Delivery of Nerve Growth Factor by Encapsulated Cell Biodelivery in the GÃ¶ttingen Minipig Basal Forebrain
Molecular Therapy : the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy. Dec, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20664524
Nerve growth factor (NGF) prevents cholinergic degeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and improves memory in AD animal models. In humans, the safe delivery of therapeutic doses of NGF is challenging. For clinical use, we have therefore developed an encapsulated cell (EC) biodelivery device, capable of local delivery of NGF. The clinical device, named NsG0202, houses an NGF-secreting cell line (NGC-0295), which is derived from a human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell line, stably genetically modified to secrete NGF. Bioactivity and correct processing of NGF was confirmed in vitro. NsG0202 devices were implanted in the basal forebrain of GÃ¶ttingen minipigs and the function and retrievability were evaluated after 7 weeks, 6 and 12 months. All devices were implanted and retrieved without associated complications. They were physically intact and contained a high number of viable and NGF-producing NGC-0295 cells after explantation. Increased NGF levels were detected in tissue surrounding the devices. The implants were well tolerated as determined by histopathological brain tissue analysis, blood analysis, and general health status of the pigs. The NsG0202 device represents a promising approach for treating the cognitive decline in AD patients.
Pig Models of Neurodegenerative Disorders: Utilization in Cell Replacement-based Preclinical Safety and Efficacy Studies
The Journal of Comparative Neurology. Aug, 2014 | Pubmed ID: 24610493
An important component for successful translation of cell replacement-based therapies into clinical practice is the utilization of large animal models to conduct efficacy and/or safety cell dosing studies. Over the past few decades, several large animal models (dog, cat, nonhuman primate) were developed and employed in cell replacement studies; however, none of these models appears to provide a readily available platform to conduct effective and large-scale preclinical studies. In recent years, numerous pig models of neurodegenerative disorders were developed using both a transgenic approach as well as invasive surgical techniques. The pig model (naïve noninjured animals) was recently used successfully to define the safety and optimal dosing of human spinal stem cells after grafting into the central nervous system (CNS) in immunosuppressed animals. The data from these studies were used in the design of a human clinical protocol used in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients in a Phase I clinical trial. In addition, a highly inbred (complete major histocompatibility complex [MHC] match) strain of miniature pigs is available which permits the design of comparable MHC combinations between the donor cells and the graft recipient as used in human patients. Jointly, these studies show that the pig model can represent an effective large animal model to be used in preclinical cell replacement modeling. This review summarizes the available pig models of neurodegenerative disorders and the use of some of these models in cell replacement studies. The challenges and potential future directions in more effective use of the pig neurodegenerative models are also discussed.
Capillary Dysfunction and Impaired Tissue Oxygenation in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: a Hypothesis
Pain. Oct, 2014 | Pubmed ID: 24946228
Brain Structure & Function. Oct, 2016 | Pubmed ID: 27778106
During the last 20 years pigs have become increasingly popular in large animal translational neuroscience research as an economical and ethical feasible substitute to non-human primates. The anatomy of the pig telencephalon is, however, not well known. We present, accordingly, a detailed description of the surface anatomy and cytoarchitecture of the Göttingen minipig telencephalon based on macrophotos and consecutive high-power microphotographs of 15 μm thick paraffin embedded Nissl-stained coronal sections. In 1-year-old specimens the formalin perfused brain measures approximately 55 × 47 × 36 mm (length, width, height) and weighs around 69 g. The telencephalic part of the Göttingen minipig cerebrum covers a large surface area, which can be divided into a neocortical gyrencephalic part located dorsal to the rhinal fissure, and a ventral subrhinal part dominated by olfactory, amygdaloid, septal, and hippocampal structures. This part of the telencephalon is named the subrhinal lobe, and based on cytoarchitectural and sulcal anatomy, can be discerned from the remaining dorsally located neocortical perirhinal/insular, pericallosal, frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. The inner subcortical structure of the minipig telencephalon is dominated by a prominent ventricular system and large basal ganglia, wherein the putamen and the caudate nucleus posterior and dorsally are separated into two entities by the internal capsule, whereas both structures ventrally fuse into a large accumbens nucleus. The presented anatomical data is accompanied by surface renderings and high-power macrophotographs illustrating the telencephalic sulcal pattern, and the localization of the identified lobes and cytoarchitectonic areas. Additionally, 24 representative Nissl-stained telencephalic coronal sections are presented as supplementary material in atlas form on http://www.cense.dk/minipig_atlas/index.html and referred to as S1-S24 throughout the manuscript.