Articles by Jeremy D. Lin in JoVE
In situ Compressive Loading and Correlative Noninvasive Imaging of the Bone-periodontal Ligament-tooth Fibrous Joint Andrew T. Jang1, Jeremy D. Lin1, Youngho Seo2, Sergey Etchin3, Arno Merkle3, Kevin Fahey3, Sunita P. Ho1 1Division of Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Department of Preventive and Restorative Dental Sciences, University of California San Francisco, 2Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, 3Xradia Inc. In this study, the use of an in situ loading device coupled with micro-X-ray computed tomography for fibrous joint biomechanics will be discussed. Experimental readouts identifiable with an overall change in joint biomechanics will include: 1) reactionary force vs. displacement, i.e. tooth displacement within the alveolar socket and its reactionary response to loading, 2) three-dimensional (3D) spatial configuration and morphometrics, i.e. geometric relationship of the tooth with the alveolar socket, and 3) changes in readouts 1 and 2 due to a change in loading axis, i.e. concentric or eccentric loads.
Other articles by Jeremy D. Lin on PubMed
Biomechanics of a Bone-periodontal Ligament-tooth Fibrous Joint Journal of Biomechanics. Feb, 2013 | Pubmed ID: 23219279 This study investigates bone-tooth association under compression to identify strain amplified sites within the bone-periodontal ligament (PDL)-tooth fibrous joint. Our results indicate that the biomechanical response of the joint is due to a combinatorial response of the constitutive properties of organic, inorganic, and fluid components. Second maxillary molars within intact maxillae (N=8) of 5-month-old rats were loaded with a μ-XCT-compatible in situ loading device at various permutations of displacement rates (0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 mm/min) and peak reactionary load responses (5, 10, 15, 20 N). Results indicated a nonlinear biomechanical response of the joint, in which the observed reactionary load rates were directly proportional to displacement rates (velocities). No significant differences in peak reactionary load rates at a displacement rate of 0.2mm/min were observed. However, for displacement rates greater than 0.2mm/min, an increasing trend in reactionary rate was observed for every peak reactionary load with significant increases at 2.0mm/min. Regardless of displacement rates, two distinct behaviors were identified with stiffness (S) and reactionary load rate (LR) values at a peak load of 5 N (S(5 N)=290-523 N/mm) being significantly lower than those at 10 N (LR(5 N)=1-10 N/s) and higher (S(10 N-20 N)=380-684 N/mm; LR(10 N-20 N)=1-19 N/s). Digital image correlation revealed the possibility of a screw-like motion of the tooth into the PDL-space, i.e., predominant vertical displacement of 35 μm at 5 N, followed by a slight increase to 40 μm at 10 N and 50 μm at 20 N of the tooth and potential tooth rotation at loads above 10 N. Narrowed and widened PDL spaces as a result of tooth displacement indicated areas of increased apparent strains within the complex. We propose that such highly strained regions are "hot spots" that can potentiate local tissue adaptation under physiological loading and adverse tissue adaptation under pathological loading conditions.
The Adaptive Nature of the Bone-periodontal Ligament-cementum Complex in a Ligature-induced Periodontitis Rat Model BioMed Research International. 2013 | Pubmed ID: 23936854 The novel aspect of this study involves illustrating significant adaptation of a functionally loaded bone-PDL-cementum complex in a ligature-induced periodontitis rat model. Following 4, 8, and 15 days of ligation, proinflammatory cytokines (TNF- α and RANKL), a mineral resorption indicator (TRAP), and a cell migration and adhesion molecule for tissue regeneration (fibronectin) within the complex were localized and correlated with changes in PDL-space (functional space). At 4 days of ligation, the functional space of the distal complex was widened compared to controls and was positively correlated with an increased expression of TNF- α. At 8 and 15 days, the number of RANKL(+) cells decreased near the mesial alveolar bone crest (ABC) but increased at the distal ABC. TRAP(+) cells on both sides of the complex significantly increased at 8 days. A gradual change in fibronectin expression from the distal PDL-secondary cementum interfaces through precementum layers was observed when compared to increased and abrupt changes at the mesial PDL-cementum and PDL-bone interfaces in ligated and control groups. Based on our results, we hypothesize that compromised strain fields can be created in a diseased periodontium, which in response to prolonged function can significantly alter the original bone and apical cementum formations.
Biomechanical Adaptation of the Bone-periodontal Ligament (PDL)-tooth Fibrous Joint As a Consequence of Disease Journal of Biomechanics. Nov, 2013 | Pubmed ID: 24332618 In this study, an in vivo ligature-induced periodontitis rat model was used to investigate temporal changes to the solid and fluid phases of the joint by correlating shifts in joint biomechanics to adaptive changes in soft and hard tissue morphology and functional space. After 6 and 12 weeks of ligation, coronal regions showed a significant decrease in alveolar crest height, increased expression of TNF-α, and degradation of attachment fibers as indicated by decreased collagen birefringence. Cyclical compression to peak loads of 5-15N at speeds of 0.2-2.0mm/min followed by load relaxation tests showed decreased stiffness and reactionary load rate values, load relaxation, and load recoverability, of ligated joints. Shifts in joint stiffness and reactionary load rate increased with time while shifts in joint relaxation and recoverability decreased between control and ligated groups, complementing measurements of increased tooth displacement as evaluated through digital image correlation. Shifts in functional space between control and ligated joints were significantly increased at the interradicular (Δ10-25μm) and distal coronal (Δ20-45μm) regions. Histology revealed time-dependent increases in nuclei elongation within PDL cells and collagen fiber alignment, uncrimping, and directionality, in 12-week ligated joints compared to random orientation in 6-week ligated joints and to controls. We propose that altered strains from tooth hypermobility could cause varying degrees of solid-to-fluid compaction, alter dampening characteristics of the joint, and potentiate increased adaptation at the risk of joint failure.