Articles by Jessica L. Prince in JoVE
A Restriction Enzyme Based Cloning Method to Assess the In vitro Replication Capacity of HIV-1 Subtype C Gag-MJ4 Chimeric Viruses Daniel T. Claiborne*1, Jessica L. Prince*1, Eric Hunter1,2 1Emory Vaccine Center at Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, 2Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Emory University HIV-1 pathogenesis is defined by both viral characteristics and host genetic factors. Here we describe a robust method that allows for reproducible measurements to assess the impact of the gag gene sequence variation on the in vitro replication capacity of the virus.
Other articles by Jessica L. Prince on PubMed
Mutagenesis of Tyrosine and Di-leucine Motifs in the HIV-1 Envelope Cytoplasmic Domain Results in a Loss of Env-mediated Fusion and Infectivity Retrovirology. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21569545 The gp41 component of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) envelope glycoprotein (Env) contains a long cytoplasmic domain (CD) with multiple highly conserved tyrosine (Y) and dileucine (LL) motifs. Studies suggest that the motifs distal to major endocytosis motif (Y712HRL), located at residues 712-715 of Env, may contribute to Env functionality in the viral life cycle. In order to examine the biological contribution of these motifs in the biosynthesis, transport, and function of Env, we constructed two panels of mutants in which the conserved Y- and LL-motifs were sequentially substituted by alternative residues, either in the presence or absence of Y712. Additional mutants targeting individual motifs were then constructed.
Impact of HLA-B*81-associated Mutations in HIV-1 Gag on Viral Replication Capacity Journal of Virology. Mar, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22238317 HIV-1 attenuation resulting from immune escape mutations selected in Gag may contribute to slower disease progression in HIV-1-infected individuals expressing certain HLA class I alleles. We previously showed that the protective allele HLA-B*81 and the HLA-B*81-selected Gag T186S mutation are strongly associated with a lower viral replication capacity of recombinant viruses encoding Gag-protease derived from individuals chronically infected with HIV-1 subtype C. In the present study, we directly tested the effect of this mutation on viral replication capacity. In addition, we investigated potential compensatory effects of various polymorphisms, including other HLA-B*81-associated mutations that significantly covary with the T186S mutation. Mutations were introduced into a reference subtype B backbone and into patient-derived subtype C sequences in subtype B and C backbones by site-directed mutagenesis. The exponential-phase growth of mutant and wild-type viruses was assayed by flow cytometry of a green fluorescent protein reporter T cell line or by measurement of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase activity in culture supernatants. Engineering of the T186S mutation alone into all patient-derived subtype C sequences failed to yield replication-competent viruses, while in the subtype B sequence, the T186S mutation resulted in impaired replication capacity. Only the T186S mutation in combination with the T190I mutation yielded replication-competent viruses for all virus backbones tested; however, these constructs replicated slower than the wild type, suggesting that only partial compensation is mediated by the T190I mutation. Constructs encoding the T186S mutation in combination with other putative compensatory mutations were attenuated or defective. These results suggest that the T186S mutation is deleterious to HIV-1 subtype C replication and likely requires complex compensatory pathways, which may contribute to the clinical benefit associated with HLA-B*81.
Role of Transmitted Gag CTL Polymorphisms in Defining Replicative Capacity and Early HIV-1 Pathogenesis PLoS Pathogens. Nov, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 23209412 Initial studies of 88 transmission pairs in the Zambia Emory HIV Research Project cohort demonstrated that the number of transmitted HLA-B associated polymorphisms in Gag, but not Nef, was negatively correlated to set point viral load (VL) in the newly infected partners. These results suggested that accumulation of CTL escape mutations in Gag might attenuate viral replication and provide a clinical benefit during early stages of infection. Using a novel approach, we have cloned gag sequences isolated from the earliest seroconversion plasma sample from the acutely infected recipient of 149 epidemiologically linked Zambian transmission pairs into a primary isolate, subtype C proviral vector, MJ4. We determined the replicative capacity (RC) of these Gag-MJ4 chimeras by infecting the GXR25 cell line and quantifying virion production in supernatants via a radiolabeled reverse transcriptase assay. We observed a statistically significant positive correlation between RC conferred by the transmitted Gag sequence and set point VL in newly infected individuals (pâ€Š=â€Š0.02). Furthermore, the RC of Gag-MJ4 chimeras also correlated with the VL of chronically infected donors near the estimated date of infection (pâ€Š=â€Š0.01), demonstrating that virus replication contributes to VL in both acute and chronic infection. These studies also allowed for the elucidation of novel sites in Gag associated with changes in RC, where rare mutations had the greatest effect on fitness. Although we observed both advantageous and deleterious rare mutations, the latter could point to vulnerable targets in the HIV-1 genome. Importantly, RC correlated significantly (pâ€Š=â€Š0.029) with the rate of CD4+ T cell decline over the first 3 years of infection in a manner that is partially independent of VL, suggesting that the replication capacity of HIV-1 during the earliest stages of infection is a determinant of pathogenesis beyond what might be expected based on set point VL alone.