Articles by Jicong Fan in JoVE
使用小波熵来证明正念练习如何增加不规则脑与心脏活动之间的协调 Hin Hung Sik1, Junling Gao1,2, Jicong Fan1, Bonnie Wai Yan Wu1, Hang Kin Leung1, Yeung Sam Hung2 1Centre of Buddhist Studies, The University of Hong Kong, 2Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Hong Kong 该手稿描述了如何使用小波熵指数来分析高密度脑电图（EEG）和心电图（ECG）数据。我们表明，在基于正念的减压实践中，脑和心脏活动的不规则性变得更加协调。
Other articles by Jicong Fan on PubMed
Entrainment of Chaotic Activities in Brain and Heart During MBSR Mindfulness Training Neuroscience Letters. Mar, 2016 | Pubmed ID: 26784361 The activities of the brain and the heart are dynamic, chaotic, and possibly intrinsically coordinated. This study aims to investigate the effect of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program on the chaoticity of electronic activities of the brain and the heart, and to explore their potential correlation. Electroencephalogram (EEG) and electrocardiogram (ECG) were recorded at the beginning of an 8-week standard MBSR training course and after the course. EEG spectrum analysis was carried out, wavelet entropies (WE) of EEG (together with reconstructed cortical sources) and heart rate were calculated, and their correlation was investigated. We found enhancement of EEG power of alpha and beta waves and lowering of delta waves power during MBSR training state as compared to normal resting state. Wavelet entropy analysis indicated that MBSR mindfulness meditation could reduce the chaotic activities of both EEG and heart rate as a change of state. However, longitudinal change of trait may need more long-term training. For the first time, our data demonstrated that the chaotic activities of the brain and the heart became more coordinated during MBSR training, suggesting that mindfulness training may increase the entrainment between mind and body. The 3D brain regions involved in the change in mental states were identified.
Repetitive Religious Chanting Modulates the Late-Stage Brain Response to Fear- and Stress-Provoking Pictures Frontiers in Psychology. 2016 | Pubmed ID: 28119651 Chanting and praying are among the most popular religious activities, which are said to be able to alleviate people's negative emotions. However, the neural mechanisms underlying this mental exercise and its temporal course have hardly been investigated. Here, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to explore the effects of chanting the name of a Buddha (Amitābha) on the brain's response to viewing negative pictures that were fear- and stress-provoking. We recorded and analyzed electroencephalography (EEG) data from 21 Buddhists with chanting experience as they viewed negative and neutral pictures. Participants were instructed to chant the names of Amitābha or Santa Claus silently to themselves or simply remain silent (no-chanting condition) during picture viewing. To measure the physiological changes corresponding to negative emotions, electrocardiogram and galvanic skin response data were also collected. Results showed that viewing negative pictures (vs. neutral pictures) increased the amplitude of the N1 component in all the chanting conditions. The amplitude of late positive potential (LPP) also increased when the negative pictures were viewed under the no-chanting and the Santa Claus condition. However, increased LPP was not observed when chanting Amitābha. The ERP source analysis confirmed this finding and showed that increased LPP mainly originated from the central-parietal regions of the brain. In addition, the participants' heart rates decreased significantly when viewing negative pictures in the Santa Claus condition. The no-chanting condition had a similar decreasing trend although not significant. However, while chanting Amitābha and viewing negative pictures participants' heart rate did not differ significantly from that observed during neutral picture viewing. It is possible that the chanting of Amitābha might have helped the participants to develop a religious schema and neutralized the effect of the negative stimuli. These findings echo similar research findings on Christian religious practices and brain responses to negative stimuli. Hence, prayer/religious practices may have cross-cultural universality in emotion regulation. This study shows for the first time that Buddhist chanting, or in a broader sense, repetition of religious prayers will not modulate brain responses to negative stimuli during the early perceptual stage, but only during the late-stage emotional/cognitive processing.