In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (12)

Articles by Jill King in JoVE

Other articles by Jill King on PubMed

Prescreening Mammography by Technologists: a Preliminary Assessment

AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology. Jan, 2003  |  Pubmed ID: 12490515

We assessed the ability of technologists to accurately classify screening mammograms as either showing negative findings or requiring follow-up.

The Effect of Routine Use of a Computer-aided Detection System on the Practice of Breast Imagers: a Subjective Assessment

Academic Radiology. Jun, 2004  |  Pubmed ID: 15172373

Mutation of the Regulator of G Protein Signaling Crg1 Increases Virulence in Cryptococcus Neoformans

Eukaryotic Cell. Aug, 2004  |  Pubmed ID: 15302835

The regulator of G protein signaling homolog Crg1 was found to be a key regulator of pheromone-responsive mating in the opportunistic human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. A mutation in the CRG1 gene has greatly increased virulence in the prevalently distributed MATalpha strains of the fungus. Mouse survival time was shortened by 40%, and the lethal dosage was 100-fold less than that of wild-type strains. In addition, the increased virulence of crg1 mutant strains was dependent on the transcription factor homolog Ste12alpha but not on the mitogen-activated protein kinase homolog Cpk1. The enhanced mating due to CRG1 mutation, however, was still dependent on Cpk1. Interestingly, crg1 mutants of MATalpha cells produced dark melanin pigment under normally inhibitory conditions, which may relate to the mechanism for increased virulence.

Variability in Observer Performance Studies Experimental Observations

Academic Radiology. Dec, 2005  |  Pubmed ID: 16321741

The aim of the study is to assess variance components in observer performance studies and the possible impact on study results and conclusions.

Screening Mammography: Do Women Prefer a Higher Recall Rate Given the Possibility of Earlier Detection of Cancer?

Radiology. Mar, 2006  |  Pubmed ID: 16505392

To prospectively survey women undergoing screening mammography to assess their attitudes toward and preference for the level of recall rates given the possibility that an increase in recall rates may result in earlier detection of cancer.

The Effect of Image Display Size on Observer Performance an Assessment of Variance Components

Academic Radiology. Apr, 2006  |  Pubmed ID: 16554219

Our goal was to investigate the effect of the displayed image size on variance components during the performance of an observer performance study to detect masses on abdominal computed tomography (CT) examinations.

The Prevalence Effect in a Laboratory Environment: Changing the Confidence Ratings

Academic Radiology. Jan, 2007  |  Pubmed ID: 17178365

We sought to assess whether or not prevalence levels affected the confidence ratings of readers during the interpretation of cases in a laboratory receiver operating characteristic-type observer performance study.

Methylphenidate Administration Alters Vesicular Monoamine Transporter-2 Function in Cytoplasmic and Membrane-associated Vesicles

The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Nov, 2007  |  Pubmed ID: 17693585

In vivo methylphenidate (MPD) administration increases vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT-2) immunoreactivity, VMAT-2-mediated dopamine (DA) transport, and DA content in a nonmembrane-associated (referred to herein as cytoplasmic) vesicular subcellular fraction purified from rat striatum: a phenomenon attributed to a redistribution of VMAT-2-associated vesicles within nerve terminals. In contrast, the present study elucidated the nature of, and the impact of MPD on, VMAT-2-associated vesicles that cofractionate with synaptosomal membranes after osmotic lysis (referred to herein as membrane-associated vesicles). Results revealed that, in striking contrast to the cytoplasmic vesicles, DA transport velocity versus substrate concentration curves in the membrane-associated vesicles were sigmoidal, suggesting positive cooperativity with respect to DA transport. Additionally, DA transport into membrane-associated vesicles was greater in total capacity in the presence of high DA concentrations than transport into cytoplasmic vesicles. Of potential therapeutic relevance, MPD increased DA transport into the membrane-associated vesicles despite rapidly decreasing (presumably by redistributing) VMAT-2 immunoreactivity in this fraction. Functional relevance was suggested by findings that MPD treatment increased both the DA content of the membrane-associated vesicle fraction and K(+)-stimulated DA release from striatal suspensions. In summary, the present data demonstrate the existence of a previously uncharacterized pool of membrane-associated VMAT-2-containing vesicles that displays novel transport kinetics, has a large sequestration capacity, and responds to in vivo pharmacological manipulation. These findings provide insight into both the regulation of vesicular DA sequestration and the mechanism of action of MPD, and they may have implications regarding treatment of disorders involving abnormal DA disposition, including Parkinson's disease and substance abuse.

Binary and Multi-category Ratings in a Laboratory Observer Performance Study: a Comparison

Medical Physics. Oct, 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 18975686

The authors investigated radiologists, performances during retrospective interpretation of screening mammograms when using a binary decision whether to recall a woman for additional procedures or not and compared it with their receiver operating characteristic (ROC) type performance curves using a semi-continuous rating scale. Under an Institutional Review Board approved protocol nine experienced radiologists independently rated an enriched set of 155 examinations that they had not personally read in the clinic, mixed with other enriched sets of examinations that they had individually read in the clinic, using both a screening BI-RADS rating scale (recall/not recall) and a semi-continuous ROC type rating scale (0 to 100). The vertical distance, namely the difference in sensitivity levels at the same specificity levels, between the empirical ROC curve and the binary operating point were computed for each reader. The vertical distance averaged over all readers was used to assess the proximity of the performance levels under the binary and ROC-type rating scale. There does not appear to be any systematic tendency of the readers towards a better performance when using either of the two rating approaches, namely four readers performed better using the semi-continuous rating scale, four readers performed better with the binary scale, and one reader had the point exactly on the empirical ROC curve. Only one of the nine readers had a binary "operating point" that was statistically distant from the same reader's empirical ROC curve. Reader-specific differences ranged from -0.046 to 0.128 with an average width of the corresponding 95% confidence intervals of 0.2 and p-values ranging for individual readers from 0.050 to 0.966. On average, radiologists performed similarly when using the two rating scales in that the average distance between the run in individual reader's binary operating point and their ROC curve was close to zero. The 95% confidence interval for the fixed-reader average (0.016) was (-0.0206, 0.0631) (two-sided p-value 0.35). In conclusion the authors found that in retrospective observer performance studies the use of a binary response or a semi-continuous rating scale led to consistent results in terms of performance as measured by sensitivity-specificity operating points.

Mechanisms Underlying Methamphetamine-induced Dopamine Transporter Complex Formation

The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Apr, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19141713

Repeated, high-dose methamphetamine (METH) administrations cause persistent dopaminergic deficits in rodents, nonhuman primates, and humans. In rats, this treatment also causes the formation of high-molecular mass (greater than approximately 120 kDa) dopamine transporter (DAT)-associated complexes, the loss of DAT monomer immunoreactivity, and a decrease in DAT function, as assessed in striatal synaptosomes prepared 24 h after METH treatment. The present study extends these findings by demonstrating the regional selectivity of DAT complex formation and monomer loss because these changes in DAT immunoreactivity were not observed in the nucleus accumbens. Furthermore, DAT complex formation was not a consequence limited to METH treatment because it was also caused by intrastriatal administration of 6-hydroxydopamine. Pretreatment with the D2 receptor antagonist, eticlopride [S-(-)-3-chloro-5-ethyl-N-[(1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl]-6-hydroxy-2-methoxybenzamide hydrochloride], but not the D1 receptor antagonist, SCH23390 [R(+)-7-chloro-8-hydroxy-3-methyl-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepine hydrochloride], attenuated METH-induced DAT complex formation. Eticlopride pretreatment also attenuated METH-induced DAT monomer loss and decreases in DAT function; however, the attenuation was much less pronounced than the effect on DAT complex formation. Finally, results also revealed a negative correlation between METH-induced DAT complex formation and DAT activity. Taken together, these data further elucidate the underlying mechanisms and the functional consequences of repeated administrations of METH on the DAT protein. Furthermore, these data suggest a multifaceted role for D2 receptors in mediating METH-induced alterations of the DAT and its function.

Impact of the New Density Reporting Laws: Radiologist Perceptions and Actual Behavior

Academic Radiology. Jun, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25837723

To assess radiologists' perceptions of how the new Breast Density Notification Act (BDNA) of Pennsylvania would affect their breast density reporting and their actual reporting patterns after implementation.

Aspergillus Infections in Cystic Fibrosis

The Journal of Infection. Jul, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27177733

Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) suffer from chronic lung infection and airway inflammation. Respiratory failure secondary to chronic or recurrent infection remains the commonest cause of death and accounts for over 90% of mortality. Bacteria as Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cepacia complex have been regarded the main CF pathogens and their role in progressive lung decline has been studied extensively. Little attention has been paid to the role of Aspergillus spp. and other filamentous fungi in the pathogenesis of non-ABPA (allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis) respiratory disease in CF, despite their frequent recovery in respiratory samples. It has become more apparent however, that Aspergillus spp. may play an important role in chronic lung disease in CF. Research delineating the underlying mechanisms of Aspergillus persistence and infection in the CF lung and its link to lung deterioration is lacking. This review summarizes the Aspergillus disease phenotypes observed in CF, discusses the role of CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator)-protein in innate immune responses and new treatment modalities.

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