In JoVE (1)
Articles by Johannes Vierock in JoVE
Whole-cell Patch-clamp Recordings for Electrophysiological Determination of Ion Selectivity in Channelrhodopsins Christiane Grimm*1, Johannes Vierock*1, Peter Hegemann1, Jonas Wietek1 1Experimental Biophysics, Institute of Biology, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin This article describes how the ion selectivity of channelrhodopsin is determined with electrophysiological whole-cell patch-clamp recordings using HEK293 cells. Here, the experimental procedure for investigating chloride selectivity of an anion-selective channelrhodopsin is demonstrated. However, the procedure is transferable to other channelrhodopsins of distinct selectivity.
Other articles by Johannes Vierock on PubMed
The Microbial Opsin Family of Optogenetic Tools Cell. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22196724 The capture and utilization of light is an exquisitely evolved process. The single-component microbial opsins, although more limited than multicomponent cascades in processing, display unparalleled compactness and speed. Recent advances in understanding microbial opsins have been driven by molecular engineering for optogenetics and by comparative genomics. Here we provide a Primer on these light-activated ion channels and pumps, describe a group of opsins bridging prior categories, and explore the convergence of molecular engineering and genomic discovery for the utilization and understanding of these remarkable molecular machines.
Optogenetic Approaches Addressing Extracellular Modulation of Neural Excitability Scientific Reports. Apr, 2016 | Pubmed ID: 27045897 The extracellular ionic environment in neural tissue has the capacity to influence, and be influenced by, natural bouts of neural activity. We employed optogenetic approaches to control and investigate these interactions within and between cells, and across spatial scales. We began by developing a temporally precise means to study microdomain-scale interactions between extracellular protons and acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs). By coupling single-component proton-transporting optogenetic tools to ASICs to create two-component optogenetic constructs (TCOs), we found that acidification of the local extracellular membrane surface by a light-activated proton pump recruited a slow inward ASIC current, which required molecular proximity of the two components on the membrane. To elicit more global effects of activity modulation on 'bystander' neurons not under direct control, we used densely-expressed depolarizing (ChR2) or hyperpolarizing (eArch3.0, eNpHR3.0) tools to create a slow non-synaptic membrane current in bystander neurons, which matched the current direction seen in the directly modulated neurons. Extracellular protons played contributory role but were insufficient to explain the entire bystander effect, suggesting the recruitment of other mechanisms. Together, these findings present a new approach to the engineering of multicomponent optogenetic tools to manipulate ionic microdomains, and probe the complex neuronal-extracellular space interactions that regulate neural excitability.