Articles by John M. Powers in JoVE
A Quantitative Dot Blot Assay for AAV Titration and Its Use for Functional Assessment of the Adeno-associated Virus Assembly-activating Proteins John M. Powers1, Xiao Lan Chang1, Zhen Song1, Hiroyuki Nakai1,2 1Department of Molecular and Medical Genetics, Oregon Health & Science University, 2Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Oregon Health & Science University This manuscript details a straightforward dot blot assay for quantitation of adeno-associated virus (AAV) titers and its application to study the role of assembly-activating proteins (AAPs), a novel class of non-structural viral proteins found in all AAV serotypes, in promoting the assembly of capsids derived from cognate and heterologous AAV serotypes.
Other articles by John M. Powers on PubMed
Adeno-associated Virus (AAV) Assembly-Activating Protein Is Not an Essential Requirement for Capsid Assembly of AAV Serotypes 4, 5, and 11 Journal of Virology. | Pubmed ID: 27852862 Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors have made great progress in their use for gene therapy; however, fundamental aspects of AAV's capsid assembly remain poorly characterized. In this regard, the discovery of assembly-activating protein (AAP) sheds new light on this crucial part of AAV biology and vector production. Previous studies have shown that AAP is essential for assembly; however, how its mechanistic roles in assembly might differ among AAV serotypes remains uncharacterized. Here, we show that biological properties of AAPs and capsid assembly processes are surprisingly distinct among AAV serotypes 1 to 12. In the study, we investigated subcellular localizations and assembly-promoting functions of AAP1 to -12 (i.e., AAPs derived from AAV1 to -12, respectively) and examined the AAP dependence of capsid assembly processes of these 12 serotypes using combinatorial approaches that involved immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy, barcode-Seq (i. e., a high-throughput quantitative method using DNA barcodes and a next-generation sequencing technology), and quantitative dot blot assays. This study revealed that AAP1 to -12 are all localized in the nucleus with serotype-specific differential patterns of nucleolar association; AAPs and assembled capsids do not necessarily colocalize; AAPs are promiscuous in promoting capsid assembly of other serotypes, with the exception of AAP4, -5, -11, and -12; assembled AAV5, -8, and -9 capsids are excluded from the nucleolus, in contrast to the nucleolar enrichment of assembled AAV2 capsids; and, surprisingly, AAV4, -5, and -11 capsids are not dependent on AAP for assembly. These observations highlight the serotype-dependent heterogeneity of the capsid assembly process and challenge current notions about the role of AAP and the nucleolus in capsid assembly.