In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (1)
Articles by John Odackal in JoVE
Real-time Iontophoresis with Tetramethylammonium to Quantify Volume Fraction and Tortuosity of Brain Extracellular Space John Odackal*1, Robert Colbourn*2,3, Namrita Jain Odackal4, Lian Tao5, Charles Nicholson5, Sabina Hrabetova2 1Department of Medicine, University of Virginia, 2Department of Cell Biology, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, 3Neural and Behavioral Science Graduate Program, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, 4Division of Neonatology, University of Virginia, 5Department of Neuroscience and Physiology, New York University School of Medicine This protocol describes real-time iontophoresis, a method that measures physical parameters of the extracellular space (ECS) of living brains. The diffusion of an inert molecule released into the ECS is used to calculate the ECS volume fraction and tortuosity. It is ideal for studying acute reversible changes to brain ECS.
Other articles by John Odackal on PubMed
T-type Calcium Channels Contribute to Calcium Disturbances in Brain During Hyponatremia Experimental Neurology. Nov, 2015 | Pubmed ID: 26257025 Disturbance of calcium homeostasis is implicated in the normal process of aging and brain pathology prevalent in the elderly such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Previous studies demonstrated that applying a hyponatremic iso-osmotic (low-NaCl) artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF) to rodent hippocampus causes extracellular calcium to rapidly decrease. Restoring normonatremia after low-NaCl treatment causes a rapid increase in extracellular calcium that overshoots baseline. This study examined the amplitude, timing, and mechanism of these surprising calcium changes. We also tested whether hyponatremia increased calcium entry into brain cells or calcium binding to chondroitin sulfate (CS), a negatively charged constituent of the extracellular matrix (ECM) that may be occupied by sodium during normonatremia. We report three major findings. First we show that CS does not contribute to extracellular calcium changes during low-NaCl treatments. Second, we show that the time to minimum extracellular calcium during low-NaCl treatment is significantly shorter than the time to maximum extracellular calcium in recovery from low-NaCl treatment. Third, we show that the decrease in extracellular calcium observed during hyponatremia is attenuated by ML 218, a highly selective T-type calcium channel blocker. Together these data suggest that calcium rapidly enters cells at the onset of low-NaCl treatment and is extruded from cells when normonatremia is restored. Calcium binding to CS does not significantly contribute to calcium changes in brain during hyponatremia. Differences in timing suggest that extracellular calcium changes during and in recovery from hyponatremia occur by distinct mechanisms or by a multistep process. Finally, partial block of extracellular calcium influx by ML 218 suggests that T-type channels are involved in calcium entering cells during hyponatremia. Given the high prevalence of hyponatremia among elderly patients and the growing understanding of calcium's role in multiple neurologic pathologies, this study promotes a novel approach for studying and potentially preventing the effects of hyponatremia on calcium dysregulation in brain tissue.