In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (9)
- Nano Letters
- Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)
- Lab on a Chip
- Analytical Chemistry
- The Analyst
- Conference Proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Annual Conference
Articles by Joshua A. Hagen in JoVE
A Method for Selecting Structure-switching Aptamers Applied to a Colorimetric Gold Nanoparticle Assay Jennifer A. Martin1,2, Joshua E. Smith1,2, Mercedes Warren1, Jorge L. Chávez1,3, Joshua A. Hagen1, Nancy Kelley-Loughnane1 1711th Human Performance Wing, Human Effectiveness Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, 2The Henry M. Jackson Foundation, 3UES, Inc. A protocol is provided to select structure-switching aptamers for small molecule targets based on a tunable stringency magnetic bead selection method. Aptamers selected with structure-switching properties are beneficial for assays that require a conformational change to signal the presence of a target, such as the described gold nanoparticle assay.
Other articles by Joshua A. Hagen on PubMed
Molecular Beam Deposition of DNA Nanometer Films Nano Letters. Jan, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17212452 The development of novel photonic devices which incorporate biological materials is strongly tied to the development of thin film forming processes. Solution-based ("wet") processes when used with biomaterials in device fabrication suffer from dissolution of underlying layers, incompatibility with clean environment, inconsistent film properties, etc. We have investigated ultra-high-vacuum molecular beam deposition of surfactant-modified deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). We have obtained effective deposition rates of approximately 0.1-1 A/s, enabling reproducible and controllable deposition of nanometer-scale films.
Biofunctionalized Zinc Oxide Field Effect Transistors for Selective Sensing of Riboflavin with Current Modulation Sensors (Basel, Switzerland). 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22163977 Zinc oxide field effect transistors (ZnO-FET), covalently functionalized with single stranded DNA aptamers, provide a highly selective platform for label-free small molecule sensing. The nanostructured surface morphology of ZnO provides high sensitivity and room temperature deposition allows for a wide array of substrate types. Herein we demonstrate the selective detection of riboflavin down to the pM level in aqueous solution using the negative electrical current response of the ZnO-FET by covalently attaching a riboflavin binding aptamer to the surface. The response of the biofunctionalized ZnO-FET was tuned by attaching a redox tag (ferrocene) to the 3' terminus of the aptamer, resulting in positive current modulation upon exposure to riboflavin down to pM levels.
Point-of-care Colorimetric Detection with a Smartphone Lab on a Chip. Nov, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22996728 Paper-based immunoassays are becoming powerful and low-cost diagnostic tools, especially in resource-limited settings. Inexpensive methods for quantifying these assays have been shown using desktop scanners, which lack portability, and cameras, which suffer from the ever changing ambient light conditions. In this work, we introduce a novel approach of quantifying colors of colorimetric diagnostic assays with a smartphone that allows high accuracy measurements in a wide range of ambient conditions, making it a truly portable system. Instead of directly using the red, green, and blue (RGB) intensities of the color images taken by a smartphone camera, we use chromaticity values to construct calibration curves of analyte concentrations. We demonstrate the high accuracy of this approach in pH measurements with linear response ranges of 1-12. These results are comparable to those reported using a desktop scanner or silicon photodetectors. To make the approach adoptable under different lighting conditions, we developed a calibration technique to compensate for measurement errors due to variability in ambient light. This technique is applicable to a number of common light sources, such as sun light, fluorescent light, or smartphone LED light. Ultimately, the entire approach can be integrated in an "app" to enable one-click reading, making our smartphone based approach operable without any professional training or complex instrumentation.
Optimization of a Paper-based ELISA for a Human Performance Biomarker Analytical Chemistry. Dec, 2013 | Pubmed ID: 24206087 Monitoring aspects of human performance during various activities has recently become a highly investigated research area. Many new commercial products are available now to monitor human physical activity or responses while performing activities ranging from playing sports, to driving, and even sleeping. However, monitoring cognitive performance biomarkers, such as neuropeptides, is still an emerging field due to the complicated sample collection and processing, as well as the need for a clinical lab to perform analysis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) provide specific detection of biomolecules with high sensitivity (picomolar concentrations). Even with the advantage of high sensitivity, most ELISAs need to be performed in a laboratory setting and require around 6 h to complete. Transitioning this assay to a platform where it reduces cost, shortens assay time, and is able to be performed outside a lab is invaluable. Recently developed paper diagnostics provide an inexpensive platform on which to perform ELISAs; however, the major limiting factor for moving out of the laboratory environment is the measurement and analysis instrumentation. Using something as simple as a digital camera or camera-enabled Windows- or Android-based tablets, we are able to image paper-based ELISAs (P-ELISAs), perform image analysis, and produce response curves with high correlation to target biomolecule concentration in the 10 pM range. Neuropeptide Y detection was performed. Additionally, silver enhancement of Au NPs conjugated with IgG antibodies showed a concentration-dependent response to IgG, thus eliminating the need for an enzyme-substrate system. Automated image analysis and quantification of antigen concentrations are able to be performed on Windows- and Android-based mobile platforms.
Paper Pump for Passive and Programmable Transport Biomicrofluidics. 2013 | Pubmed ID: 24403999 In microfluidic systems, a pump for fluid-driving is often necessary. To keep the size of microfluidic systems small, a pump that is small in size, light-weight and needs no external power source is advantageous. In this work, we present a passive, simple, ultra-low-cost, and easily controlled pumping method based on capillary action of paper that pumps fluid through conventional polymer-based microfluidic channels with steady flow rate. By using inexpensive cutting tools, paper can be shaped and placed at the outlet port of a conventional microfluidic channel, providing a wide range of pumping rates. A theoretical model was developed to describe the pumping mechanism and aid in the design of paper pumps. As we show, paper pumps can provide steady flow rates from 0.3 μl/s to 1.7 μl/s and can be cascaded to achieve programmable flow-rate tuning during the pumping process. We also successfully demonstrate transport of the most common biofluids (urine, serum, and blood). With these capabilities, the paper pump has the potential to become a powerful fluid-driving approach that will benefit the fielding of microfluidic systems for point-of-care applications.
Pentacene Organic Thin-film Transistors on Flexible Paper and Glass Substrates Nanotechnology. Mar, 2014 | Pubmed ID: 24521939 Pentacene-based organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) were fabricated on several types of flexible substrate: commercial photo paper, ultra-smooth specialty paper and ultra-thin (100 μM) flexible glass. The transistors were fabricated entirely through dry-step processing. The transconductance and field-effect mobility of OTFTs on photo paper reached values of ∼0.52 mS m(-1) and ∼ 0.1 cm(2) V (-1) s(-1), respectively. Preliminary results on the lifetime of OTFTs on photo paper yielded stable transconductance and mobility values over a period of more than 250 h. The comparable characteristics of OTFTs fabricated on widely available, low cost paper and high quality expensive liquid crystal display glass indicate the potential importance of cellulose-based electronic devices.
Colorimetric Detection with Aptamer-gold Nanoparticle Conjugates Coupled to an Android-based Color Analysis Application for Use in the Field Talanta. Apr, 2014 | Pubmed ID: 24607135 The feasibility of using aptamer-gold nanoparticle conjugates (Apt-AuNPs) to design colorimetric assays for in the field detection of small molecules was investigated. An assay to detect cocaine was designed using two clones of a known cocaine-binding aptamer. The assay was based on the AuNPs difference in affinity for single-stranded DNA (non-binding) and double stranded DNA (target bound). In the first assay, a commonly used design was followed, in which the aptamer and target were incubated to allow binding followed by exposure to the AuNPs. Interactions between the non-bound analytes and the AuNPs surface resulted in a number of false positives. The assay was redesigned by incubating the AuNPs and the aptamer prior to target addition to passivate the AuNPs surface. The adsorbed aptamer was able to bind the target while preventing non-specific interactions. The assay was validated with a number of masking and cutting agents and other controlled substances showing minimal false positives. Studies to improve the assay performance in the field were performed, showing that assay activity could be preserved for up to 2 months. To facilitate the assay analysis, an android application for automatic colorimetric characterization was developed. The application was validated by challenging the assay with cocaine standards of different concentrations, and comparing the results to a conventional plate reader, showing outstanding agreement. Finally, the rapid identification of cocaine in mixtures mimicking street samples was demonstrated. This work established that Apt-AuNPs can be used to design robust assays to be used in the field.
Plasmonic Aptamer-gold Nanoparticle Sensors for Small Molecule Fingerprint Identification The Analyst. Dec, 2014 | Pubmed ID: 25319608 The utilization of the plasmonic response of aptamer-gold nanoparticle conjugates (Apt-AuNPs) to design cross-reactive arrays for fingerprint identification of small molecular targets was demonstrated for the first time. Four aptamers with different structural features previously selected to bind different targets were used in combination with AuNPs by adsorbing the DNA on the AuNPs surface. The optimized response of the Apt-AuNPs to the analytes showed that, depending on the specific aptamer used, target binding by the aptamer could result in an increase or decrease of Apt-AuNPs stability. These Apt-AuNPs showed the ability to recognize different analytes with different affinities, generating fingerprints that allowed unambiguous analyte identification with response times in less than fifteen minutes. Importantly, it was observed that it was not necessary to select an aptamer per analyte of interest to generate differentiable signatures, but a subset of aptamers could be used to identify a larger number of analytes. The data was analyzed using principal component analysis, showing efficient clustering of the different datasets for qualitative and quantitative identification. This work opens the door to using these Apt-AuNPs in point of care diagnostics applications where fast sensors with easy to read outputs are needed.
System-level Design of an RFID Sweat Electrolyte Sensor Patch Conference Proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Annual Conference. Aug, 2014 | Pubmed ID: 25570878 Wearable digital health devices are dominantly found in rigid form factors such as bracelets and pucks. An adhesive RFID sensor bandage (patch) is reported, which can be made completely intimate with human skin, a distinct advantage for chronological monitoring of biomarkers in sweat. In this demonstration, a commercial RFID chip is adapted with minimum components to allow potentiometric sensing of mM ionic solutes in sweat, and surface temperature, as read by an Android smart-phone app (in-vitro tests).