In JoVE (1)
Articles by Julia B. Carleton in JoVE
Dissection of Enhancer Function Using Multiplex CRISPR-based Enhancer Interference in Cell Lines Julia B. Carleton1, Kristofer C. Berrett1, Jason Gertz1 1Department of Oncological Sciences, Huntsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah This protocol describes the steps needed to design and perform multiplexed targeting of enhancers with the deactivating fusion protein SID4X-dCas9-KRAB, also known as enhancer interference (Enhancer-i). This protocol enables the identification of enhancers that regulate gene expression and facilitates the dissection of relationships between enhancers regulating a common target gene.
Other articles by Julia B. Carleton on PubMed
Promoter-distal RNA Polymerase II Binding Discriminates Active from Inactive CCAAT/ Enhancer-binding Protein Beta Binding Sites Genome Research. | Pubmed ID: 26486725 Transcription factors (TFs) bind to thousands of DNA sequences in mammalian genomes, but most of these binding events appear to have no direct effect on gene expression. It is unclear why only a subset of TF bound sites are actively involved in transcriptional regulation. Moreover, the key genomic features that accurately discriminate between active and inactive TF binding events remain ambiguous. Recent studies have identified promoter-distal RNA polymerase II (RNAP2) binding at enhancer elements, suggesting that these interactions may serve as a marker for active regulatory sequences. Despite these correlative analyses, a thorough functional validation of these genomic co-occupancies is still lacking. To characterize the gene regulatory activity of DNA sequences underlying promoter-distal TF binding events that co-occur with RNAP2 and TF sites devoid of RNAP2 occupancy using a functional reporter assay, we performed cis-regulatory element sequencing (CRE-seq). We tested more than 1000 promoter-distal CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta (CEBPB)-bound sites in HepG2 and K562 cells, and found that CEBPB-bound sites co-occurring with RNAP2 were more likely to exhibit enhancer activity. CEBPB-bound sites further maintained substantial cell-type specificity, indicating that local DNA sequence can accurately convey cell-type-specific regulatory information. By comparing our CRE-seq results to a comprehensive set of genome annotations, we identified a variety of genomic features that are strong predictors of regulatory element activity and cell-type-specific activity. Collectively, our functional assay results indicate that RNAP2 occupancy can be used as a key genomic marker that can distinguish active from inactive TF bound sites.
Multiplex Enhancer Interference Reveals Collaborative Control of Gene Regulation by Estrogen Receptor α-Bound Enhancers Cell Systems. | Pubmed ID: 28964699 Multiple regulatory regions have the potential to regulate a single gene, yet how these elements combine to affect gene expression remains unclear. To uncover the combinatorial relationships between enhancers, we developed Enhancer-interference (Enhancer-i), a CRISPR interference-based approach that uses 2 different repressive domains, KRAB and SID, to prevent enhancer activation simultaneously at multiple regulatory regions. We applied Enhancer-i to promoter-distal estrogen receptor α binding sites (ERBS), which cluster around estradiol-responsive genes and therefore may collaborate to regulate gene expression. Targeting individual sites revealed predominant ERBS that are completely required for the transcriptional response, indicating a lack of redundancy. Simultaneous interference of different ERBS combinations identified supportive ERBS that contribute only when predominant sites are active. Using mathematical modeling, we find strong evidence for collaboration between predominant and supportive ERBS. Overall, our findings expose a complex functional hierarchy of enhancers, where multiple loci bound by the same transcription factor combine to fine-tune the expression of target genes.