In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (18)

Articles by Julio E. Ayala in JoVE

 JoVE Medicine

Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic Clamps in Conscious, Unrestrained Mice

1Diabetes and Obesity Research Center, Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute at Lake Nona, 2Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, 3Vanderbilt Mouse Metabolic Phenotyping Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, 4Department of Pediatrics and Cellular and Integrative Physiology, Indiana University School of Medicine


JoVE 3188

Other articles by Julio E. Ayala on PubMed

Accessory Elements, Flanking DNA Sequence, and Promoter Context Play Key Roles in Determining the Efficacy of Insulin and Phorbol Ester Signaling Through the Malic Enzyme and Collagenase-1 AP-1 Motifs

The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Aug, 2002  |  Pubmed ID: 12032154

Insulin stimulates malic enzyme (ME)-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) and collagenase-1-CAT fusion gene expression in H4IIE cells through identical activator protein-1 (AP-1) motifs. In contrast, insulin and phorbol esters only stimulate collagenase-1-CAT and not ME-CAT fusion gene expression in HeLa cells. The experiments in this article were designed to explore the molecular basis for this differential cell type- and gene-specific regulation. The results highlight the influence of three variables, namely promoter context, AP-1 flanking sequence, and accessory elements that modulate insulin and phorbol ester signaling through the AP-1 motif. Thus, fusion gene transfection and proteolytic clipping gel retardation assays suggest that the AP-1 flanking sequence affects the conformation of AP-1 binding to the collagenase-1 and ME AP-1 motifs such that it selectively binds the latter in a fully activated state. However, this influence of ME AP-1 flanking sequence is dependent on promoter context. Thus, the ME AP-1 motif will mediate both an insulin and phorbol ester response in HeLa cells when introduced into either the collagenase-1 promoter or a specific heterologous promoter. But even in the context of the collagenase-1 promoter, the effects of both insulin and phorbol esters, mediated through the ME AP-1 motif are dependent on accessory factors.

Interaction of Physiological Mechanisms in Control of Muscle Glucose Uptake

Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology. Apr, 2005  |  Pubmed ID: 15810999

1. Control of glucose uptake is distributed between three steps. These are the rate that glucose is delivered to cells, the rate of transport into cells, and the rate that glucose is phosphorylated within these same cells. The functional limitations to each one of these individual steps has been difficult to assess because they are so closely coupled to each other. Studies have been performed in recent years using complex isotopic techniques or transgenic mouse models to shed new light on the role that each step plays in overall control of muscle glucose uptake. 2. Membrane glucose transport is a major barrier and glucose delivery and glucose phosphorylation are minor barriers to muscle glucose uptake in the fasted, sedentary state. GLUT-4 is translocated to the muscle membrane during exercise and insulin-stimulation. The result of this is that it can become so permeable to glucose that it is only a minor barrier to glucose uptake. 3. In addition to increasing glucose transport, exercise and insulin-stimulation also increase muscle blood flow and capillary recruitment. This effectively increases muscle glucose delivery and by doing so, works to enhance muscle glucose uptake. 4. There is a growing body of data that suggests that insulin resistance to muscle glucose uptake can be because of impairments in any one or more of the three steps that comprise the process.

Considerations in the Design of Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic Clamps in the Conscious Mouse

Diabetes. Feb, 2006  |  Pubmed ID: 16443772

Despite increased use of the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp to study insulin action in mice, the effects of experimental parameters on the results obtained have not been addressed. In our studies, we determined the influences of sampling sites, fasting duration, and insulin delivery on results obtained from clamps in conscious mice. Carotid artery and jugular vein catheters were implanted in C57BL/6J mice (n = 6-10/group) fed a normal diet for sampling and infusions. After a 5-day recovery period, mice underwent a 120-min clamp (2.5-mU . kg(-1) . min(-1) insulin infusion; approximately 120-130 mg/dl glucose) while receiving [3-(3)H]glucose to determine glucose appearance (endoR(a)) and disappearance (R(d)). Sampling large volumes (approximately 100 mul) from the cut tail resulted in elevated catecholamines and basal glucose compared with artery sampling. Catecholamines were not elevated when taking small samples ( approximately 5 mul) from the cut tail. Overnight (18-h) fasting resulted in greater loss of total body, lean, and fat masses and hepatic glycogen but resulted in enhanced insulin sensitivity compared with 5-h fasting. Compared with a 16-mU/kg insulin prime, a 300-mU/kg prime resulted in hepatic insulin resistance and slower acquisition of steady-state glucose infusion rates (GIR) after a 5-h fast. The steady-state GIR was expedited after the 300-mU/kg prime in 18-h-fasted mice. The GIR and R(d) rose with increasing insulin infusions (0.8, 2.5, 4, and 20 mU . kg(-1) . min(-1)), but endoR(a) was fully suppressed with doses higher than 0.8 mU . kg(-1) . min(-1). Thus, common variations in experimental factors yield different results and should be considered in designing and interpreting clamps.

Glucose Kinetics and Exercise Tolerance in Mice Lacking the GLUT4 Glucose Transporter

The Journal of Physiology. Jul, 2007  |  Pubmed ID: 17495042

The absence of GLUT4 severely impairs basal glucose uptake in vivo, but does not alter glucose homeostasis or circulating insulin. Glucose uptake in isolated contracting skeletal muscle (MGU) is also impaired by the absence of GLUT4, and onset of muscle fatigue is hastened. Whether the body can compensate and preserve glucose homeostasis during exercise, as it does in the basal state, is unknown. One aim was to test the effectiveness of glucoregulatory compensation for the absence of GLUT4 in vivo. The absence of GLUT4 was also used to further define the role of hexokinase (HK) II, which catalyses glucose phosphorylation after it is transported in the cell. HK II increases MGU during exercise, as well as exercise endurance. In the absence of GLUT4, HK II expression will not affect MGU. A second aim was to test whether, in the absence of GLUT4, HK II retains its ability to increase exercise endurance. Wild-type (WT), GLUT4 null (GLUT4(-/-)), and GLUT4 null overexpressing HK II (GLUT4(-/-)HK(Tg)) mice were studied using a catheterized mouse model that allows blood sampling and isotope infusions during treadmill exercise. The impaired capacity of working muscle to take up glucose in GLUT4(-/-) is partially offset by an exaggerated increase in the glucagon: insulin ratio, increased liver glucose production, hyperglycaemia, and a greater capillary density in order to increase the delivery of glucose to the exercising muscle of GLUT4(-/-). Hearts of GLUT4(-/-) also exhibited a compensatory increase in HK II expression and a paradoxical increase in glucose uptake. Exercise tolerance was reduced in GLUT4(-/-) compared to WT. As expected, MGU in GLUT4(-/-)HK(Tg) was the same as in GLUT4(-/-). However, HK II overexpression retained its ability to increase exercise endurance. In conclusion, unlike the basal state where glucose homeostasis is preserved, hyperglycaemia results during exercise in GLUT4(-/-) due to a robust stimulation of liver glucose release in the face of severe impairments in MGU. Finally, studies in GLUT4(-/-)HK(Tg) show that HK II improves exercise tolerance, independent of its effects on MGU.

Chronic Treatment with Sildenafil Improves Energy Balance and Insulin Action in High Fat-fed Conscious Mice

Diabetes. Apr, 2007  |  Pubmed ID: 17229936

Stimulation of nitric oxide-cGMP signaling results in vascular relaxation and increased muscle glucose uptake. We show that chronically inhibiting cGMP hydrolysis with the phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor sildenafil improves energy balance and enhances in vivo insulin action in a mouse model of diet-induced insulin resistance. High-fat-fed mice treated with sildenafil plus L-arginine or sildenafil alone for 12 weeks had reduced weight and fat mass due to increased energy expenditure. However, uncoupling protein-1 levels were not increased in sildenafil-treated mice. Chronic treatment with sildenafil plus L-arginine or sildenafil alone increased arterial cGMP levels but did not adversely affect blood pressure or cardiac morphology. Sildenafil treatment, with or without l-arginine, resulted in lower fasting insulin and glucose levels and enhanced rates of glucose infusion, disappearance, and muscle glucose uptake during a hyperinsulinemic (4 mU x kg(-1) x min(-1))-euglycemic clamp in conscious mice. These effects occurred without an increase in activation of muscle insulin signaling. An acute treatment of high fat-fed mice with sildenafil plus l-arginine did not improve insulin action. These results show that phosphodiesterase-5 is a potential target for therapies aimed at preventing diet-induced energy imbalance and insulin resistance.

Glucose Metabolism in Vivo in Four Commonly Used Inbred Mouse Strains

Diabetes. Jul, 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 18398139

To characterize differences in whole-body glucose metabolism between commonly used inbred mouse strains.

Insulin Action in the Double Incretin Receptor Knockout Mouse

Diabetes. Feb, 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 17977951

The incretins glucagon-like peptide 1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide have been postulated to play a role in regulating insulin action, although the mechanisms behind this relationship remain obscure. We used the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp to determine sites where insulin action may be modulated in double incretin receptor knockout (DIRKO) mice, which lack endogenous incretin action.

Lost in Translation

Diabetes. Sep, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19720822

NIH Experiment in Centralized Mouse Phenotyping: the Vanderbilt Experience and Recommendations for Evaluating Glucose Homeostasis in the Mouse

American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism. Oct, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19638507

This article addresses two topics. We provide an overview of the National Institutes of Health Mouse Metabolic Phenotyping Center (MMPC) Program. We then discuss some observations we have made during the first eight years of the Vanderbilt MMPC regarding common phenotyping practices. We include specific recommendations to improve phenotyping practices for tests of glucose tolerance and insulin action. We recommend that methods for experiments in vivo be described in manuscripts. We make specific recommendations for data presentation, interpretation, and experimental design for each test. To facilitate and maximize the exchange of scientific information, we suggest that guidelines be developed for methods used to assess glucose tolerance and insulin action in vivo.

Skeletal Muscle AMP-activated Protein Kinase is Essential for the Metabolic Response to Exercise in Vivo

The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Sep, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19525228

AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been postulated as a super-metabolic regulator, thought to exert numerous effects on skeletal muscle function, metabolism, and enzymatic signaling. Despite these assertions, little is known regarding the direct role(s) of AMPK in vivo, and results obtained in vitro or in situ are conflicting. Using a chronically catheterized mouse model (carotid artery and jugular vein), we show that AMPK regulates skeletal muscle metabolism in vivo at several levels, with the result that a deficit in AMPK activity markedly impairs exercise tolerance. Compared with wild-type littermates at the same relative exercise capacity, vascular glucose delivery and skeletal muscle glucose uptake were impaired; skeletal muscle ATP degradation was accelerated, and arterial lactate concentrations were increased in mice expressing a kinase-dead AMPKalpha2 subunit (alpha2-KD) in skeletal muscle. Nitric-oxide synthase (NOS) activity was significantly impaired at rest and in response to exercise in alpha2-KD mice; expression of neuronal NOS (NOSmicro) was also reduced. Moreover, complex I and IV activities of the electron transport chain were impaired 32 +/- 8 and 50 +/- 7%, respectively, in skeletal muscle of alpha2-KD mice (p < 0.05 versus wild type), indicative of impaired mitochondrial function. Thus, AMPK regulates neuronal NOSmicro expression, NOS activity, and mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle. In addition, these results clarify the role of AMPK in the control of muscle glucose uptake during exercise. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that AMPK is central to substrate metabolism in vivo, which has important implications for exercise tolerance in health and certain disease states characterized by impaired AMPK activation in skeletal muscle.

The Glucagon-like Peptide-1 Receptor Regulates Endogenous Glucose Production and Muscle Glucose Uptake Independent of Its Incretin Action

Endocrinology. Mar, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19008308

Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) diminishes postmeal glucose excursions by enhancing insulin secretion via activation of the beta-cell GLP-1 receptor (Glp1r). GLP-1 may also control glucose levels through mechanisms that are independent of this incretin effect. The hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (insulin clamp) and exercise were used to examine the incretin-independent glucoregulatory properties of the Glp1r because both perturbations stimulate glucose flux independent of insulin secretion. Chow-fed mice with a functional disruption of the Glp1r (Glp1r(-/-)) were compared with wild-type littermates (Glp1r(+/+)). Studies were performed on 5-h-fasted mice implanted with arterial and venous catheters for sampling and infusions, respectively. During insulin clamps, [3-(3)H]glucose and 2[(14)C]deoxyglucose were used to determine whole-body glucose turnover and glucose metabolic index (R(g)), an indicator of glucose uptake. R(g) in sedentary and treadmill exercised mice was determined using 2[(3)H]deoxyglucose. Glp1r(-/-) mice exhibited increased glucose disappearance, muscle R(g), and muscle glycogen levels during insulin clamps. This was not associated with enhanced muscle insulin signaling. Glp1r(-/-) mice exhibited impaired suppression of endogenous glucose production and hepatic glycogen accumulation during insulin clamps. This was associated with impaired liver insulin signaling. Glp1r(-/-) mice became significantly hyperglycemic during exercise. Muscle R(g) was normal in exercised Glp1r(-/-) mice, suggesting that hyperglycemia resulted from an added drive to stimulate glucose production. Muscle AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation was higher in exercised Glp1r(-/-) mice. This was associated with increased relative exercise intensity and decreased exercise endurance. In conclusion, these results show that the endogenous Glp1r regulates hepatic and muscle glucose flux independent of its ability to enhance insulin secretion.

Standard Operating Procedures for Describing and Performing Metabolic Tests of Glucose Homeostasis in Mice

Disease Models & Mechanisms. Sep-Oct, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 20713647

The Mouse Metabolic Phenotyping Center (MMPC) Consortium was established to address the need to characterize the growing number of mouse models of metabolic diseases, particularly diabetes and obesity. A goal of the MMPC Consortium is to propose standard methods for assessing metabolic phenotypes in mice. In this article, we discuss issues pertaining to the design and performance of various tests of glucose metabolism. We also propose guidelines for the description of methods, presentation of data and interpretation of results. The recommendations presented in this article are based on the experience of the MMPC Consortium and other investigators.

Glucagon-like Peptide-1 Receptor Knockout Mice Are Protected from High-fat Diet-induced Insulin Resistance

Endocrinology. Oct, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 20685876

Glucagon-like peptide-1 augments nutrient-stimulated insulin secretion. Chow-fed mice lacking the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (Glp1r) exhibit enhanced insulin-stimulated muscle glucose uptake but impaired suppression of endogenous glucose appearance (endoRa). This proposes a novel role for the Glp1r to regulate the balance of glucose disposal in muscle and liver by modulating insulin action. Whether this is maintained in an insulin-resistant state is unknown. The present studies tested the hypothesis that disruption of Glp1r expression overcomes high-fat (HF) diet-induced muscle insulin resistance and exacerbates HF diet-induced hepatic insulin resistance. Mice with a functional disruption of the Glp1r (Glp1r-/-) were compared with wild-type littermates (Glp1r+/+) after 12 wk on a regular chow diet or a HF diet. Arterial and venous catheters were implanted for sampling and infusions. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps were performed on weight-matched male mice. [3-(3)H]glucose was used to determine glucose turnover, and 2[14C]deoxyglucose was used to measure the glucose metabolic index, an indicator of glucose uptake. Glp1r-/- mice exhibited increased glucose disappearance and muscle glucose metabolic index on either diet. This was associated with enhanced activation of muscle Akt and AMP-activated protein kinase and reduced muscle triglycerides in HF-fed Glp1r-/- mice. Chow-fed Glp1r-/- mice exhibited impaired suppression of endoRa and hepatic insulin signaling. In contrast, HF-fed Glp1r-/- mice exhibited improved suppression of endoRa and hepatic Akt activation. This was associated with decreased hepatic triglycerides and impaired activation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1. These results show that mice lacking the Glp1r are protected from HF diet-induced muscle and hepatic insulin resistance independent of effects on total fat mass.

Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase is Central to Skeletal Muscle Metabolic Regulation and Enzymatic Signaling During Exercise in Vivo

American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology. May, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 20200137

Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is associated with a number of physiological functions involved in the regulation of metabolism; however, the functional role of eNOS is poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that eNOS is critical to muscle cell signaling and fuel usage during exercise in vivo, using 16-wk-old catheterized (carotid artery and jugular vein) C57BL/6J mice with wild-type (WT), partial (+/-), or no expression (-/-) of eNOS. Quantitative reductions in eNOS expression ( approximately 40%) elicited many of the phenotypic effects observed in enos(-/-) mice under fasted, sedentary conditions, with expression of oxidative phosphorylation complexes I to V and ATP levels being decreased, and total NOS activity and Ca(2+)/CaM kinase II Thr(286) phosphorylation being increased in skeletal muscle. Despite these alterations, exercise tolerance was markedly impaired in enos(-/-) mice during an acute 30-min bout of exercise. An eNOS-dependent effect was observed with regard to AMP-activated protein kinase signaling and muscle perfusion. Muscle glucose and long-chain fatty acid uptake, and hepatic and skeletal muscle glycogenolysis during the exercise bout was markedly accelerated in enos(-/-) mice compared with enos(+/-) and WT mice. Correspondingly, enos(-/-) mice exhibited hypoglycemia during exercise. Thus, the ablation of eNOS alters a number of physiological processes that result in impaired exercise capacity in vivo. The finding that a partial reduction in eNOS expression is sufficient to induce many of the changes associated with ablation of eNOS has implications for chronic metabolic diseases, such as obesity and insulin resistance, which are associated with reduced eNOS expression.

The Nuclear Receptor PPARβ/δ Programs Muscle Glucose Metabolism in Cooperation with AMPK and MEF2

Genes & Development. Dec, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 22135324

To identify new gene regulatory pathways controlling skeletal muscle energy metabolism, comparative studies were conducted on muscle-specific transgenic mouse lines expressing the nuclear receptors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα; muscle creatine kinase [MCK]-PPARα) or PPARβ/δ (MCK-PPARβ/δ). MCK-PPARβ/δ mice are known to have enhanced exercise performance, whereas MCK-PPARα mice perform at low levels. Transcriptional profiling revealed that the lactate dehydrogenase b (Ldhb)/Ldha gene expression ratio is increased in MCK-PPARβ/δ muscle, an isoenzyme shift that diverts pyruvate into the mitochondrion for the final steps of glucose oxidation. PPARβ/δ gain- and loss-of-function studies in skeletal myotubes demonstrated that PPARβ/δ, but not PPARα, interacts with the exercise-inducible kinase AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) to synergistically activate Ldhb gene transcription by cooperating with myocyte enhancer factor 2A (MEF2A) in a PPARβ/δ ligand-independent manner. MCK-PPARβ/δ muscle was shown to have high glycogen stores, increased levels of GLUT4, and augmented capacity for mitochondrial pyruvate oxidation, suggesting a broad reprogramming of glucose utilization pathways. Lastly, exercise studies demonstrated that MCK-PPARβ/δ mice persistently oxidized glucose compared with nontransgenic controls, while exhibiting supranormal performance. These results identify a transcriptional regulatory mechanism that increases capacity for muscle glucose utilization in a pattern that resembles the effects of exercise training.

Diet-induced Muscle Insulin Resistance is Associated with Extracellular Matrix Remodeling and Interaction with Integrin Alpha2beta1 in Mice

Diabetes. Feb, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 21270253

The hypothesis that high-fat (HF) feeding causes skeletal muscle extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling in C57BL/6J mice and that this remodeling contributes to diet-induced muscle insulin resistance (IR) through the collagen receptor integrin α(2)β(1) was tested.

The Physiological Regulation of Glucose Flux into Muscle in Vivo

The Journal of Experimental Biology. Jan, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 21177945

Skeletal muscle glucose uptake increases dramatically in response to physical exercise. Moreover, skeletal muscle comprises the vast majority of insulin-sensitive tissue and is a site of dysregulation in the insulin-resistant state. The biochemical and histological composition of the muscle is well defined in a variety of species. However, the functional consequences of muscle biochemical and histological adaptations to physiological and pathophysiological conditions are not well understood. The physiological regulation of muscle glucose uptake is complex. Sites involved in the regulation of muscle glucose uptake are defined by a three-step process consisting of: (1) delivery of glucose to muscle, (2) transport of glucose into the muscle by GLUT4 and (3) phosphorylation of glucose within the muscle by a hexokinase (HK). Muscle blood flow, capillary recruitment and extracellular matrix characteristics determine glucose movement from the blood to the interstitium. Plasma membrane GLUT4 content determines glucose transport into the cell. Muscle HK activity, cellular HK compartmentalization and the concentration of the HK inhibitor glucose 6-phosphate determine the capacity to phosphorylate glucose. Phosphorylation of glucose is irreversible in muscle; therefore, with this reaction, glucose is trapped and the uptake process is complete. Emphasis has been placed on the role of the glucose transport step for glucose influx into muscle with the past assertion that membrane transport is rate limiting. More recent research definitively shows that the distributed control paradigm more accurately defines the regulation of muscle glucose uptake as each of the three steps that define this process are important sites of flux control.

Acute Activation of Central GLP-1 Receptors Enhances Hepatic Insulin Action and Insulin Secretion in High-fat-fed, Insulin Resistant Mice

American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism. Feb, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22094469

Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor knockout (Glp1r(-/-)) mice exhibit impaired hepatic insulin action. High fat (HF)-fed Glp1r(-/-) mice exhibit improved, rather than the expected impaired, hepatic insulin action. This is due to decreased lipogenic gene expression and triglyceride accumulation. The present studies overcome these secondary adaptations by acutely modulating GLP-1R action in HF-fed wild-type mice. The central GLP-1R was targeted given its role as a regulator of hepatic insulin action. We hypothesized that acute inhibition of the central GLP-1R impairs hepatic insulin action beyond the effects of HF feeding. We further hypothesized that activation of the central GLP-1R improves hepatic insulin action in HF-fed mice. Insulin action was assessed in conscious, unrestrained mice using the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. Mice received intracerebroventricular (icv) infusions of artificial cerebrospinal fluid, GLP-1, or the GLP-1R antagonist exendin-9 (Ex-9) during the clamp. Intracerebroventricular Ex-9 impaired the suppression of hepatic glucose production by insulin, whereas icv GLP-1 improved it. Neither treatment affected tissue glucose uptake. Intracerebroventricular GLP-1 enhanced activation of hepatic Akt and suppressed hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase. Central GLP-1R activation resulted in lower hepatic triglyceride levels but did not affect muscle, white adipose tissue, or plasma triglyceride levels during hyperinsulinemia. In response to oral but not intravenous glucose challenges, activation of the central GLP-1R improved glucose tolerance. This was associated with higher insulin levels. Inhibition of the central GLP-1R had no effect on oral or intravenous glucose tolerance. These results show that inhibition of the central GLP-1R deteriorates hepatic insulin action in HF-fed mice but does not affect whole body glucose homeostasis. Contrasting this, activation of the central GLP-1R improves glucose homeostasis in HF-fed mice by increasing insulin levels and enhancing hepatic insulin action.

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