In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (17)

Articles by Julio Contreras in JoVE

 JoVE Biology

A Comparative Study of Drug Delivery Methods Targeted to the Mouse Inner Ear: Bullostomy Versus Transtympanic Injection

1Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas (IIBm) Alberto Sols CSIC-UAM, 2Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Raras (CIBERER), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), 3Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria La Paz (IdiPAZ), 4Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 5Departmento de Otorrino laringología, Hospital Universitario La Paz


JoVE 54951

Other articles by Julio Contreras on PubMed

Cochlear Abnormalities in Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 Mouse Mutants

Hearing Research. Aug, 2002  |  Pubmed ID: 12208536

Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) modulates inner ear cell proliferation, differentiation and survival in culture. Its function in human hearing was first evidenced by a report of a boy with a homozygous deletion of the Igf-1 gene, who showed severe sensorineural deafness [Woods et al., New Engl. J. Med. 335 (1996) 1363-1367]. To better understand the in vivo role of IGF-1 during inner ear differentiation and maturation, we studied the cochleae of Igf-1 gene knockout mice by performing morphometric stereological analyses, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy on postnatal days 5 (P5), P8 and P20. At P20, but not at P5, the volumes of the cochlea and cochlear ganglion were significantly reduced in mutant mice, although the reduction was less severe than whole body dwarfism. A significant decrease in the number and average size of auditory neurons was also evident at P20. IGF-1-deficient cochlear neurons showed increased apoptosis, along with altered expression of neurofilament 200 kDa and vimentin. The eighth nerve, the cochlear ganglion and the fibers innervating the sensory cells of the organ of Corti of the P20 mouse mutants presented increased expression of vimentin, whereas the expression of neurofilament was decreased. In addition, the myelin sheath was severely affected in ganglion neurons. In conclusion, IGF-1 deficit in mice severely affects postnatal survival, differentiation and maturation of the cochlear ganglion cells.

Trophic Effects of Insulin-like Growth Factor-I (IGF-I) in the Inner Ear

Hearing Research. Oct, 2004  |  Pubmed ID: 15464297

Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) have a pivotal role during nervous system development and in its functional maintenance. IGF-I and its high affinity receptor (IGF1R) are expressed in the developing inner ear and in the postnatal cochlear and vestibular ganglia. We recently showed that trophic support by IGF-I is essential for the early neurogenesis of the chick cochleovestibular ganglion (CVG). In the chicken embryo otic vesicle, IGF-I regulates developmental death dynamics by regulating the activity and/or levels of key intracellular molecules, including lipid and protein kinases such as ceramide kinase, Akt and Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Mice lacking IGF-I lose many auditory neurons and present increased auditory thresholds at early postnatal ages. Neuronal loss associated to IGF-I deficiency is caused by apoptosis of the auditory neurons, which presented abnormally increased levels of activated caspase-3. It is worth noting that in man, homozygous deletion of the IGF-1 gene causes sensory-neural deafness. IGF-I is thus necessary for normal development and maintenance of the inner ear. The trophic actions of IGF-I in the inner ear suggest that this factor may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of hearing loss.

Double Bouquet Cell in the Human Cerebral Cortex and a Comparison with Other Mammals

The Journal of Comparative Neurology. Jun, 2005  |  Pubmed ID: 15846784

Double bouquet cells (DBCs) are neocortical gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic interneurons characterized by the vertical bundling of its axon, which are generally termed "bundles" or "horse-tails." Using immunocytochemistry for the calcium binding protein calbindin, we have analyzed the morphology, density, and distribution of DBC horse-tails in different cortical areas of the human cortex (Brodmann's areas 10, 4, 3b, 22, 18, and 17). Although DBC horse-tails were very numerous and regularly distributed in all cortical areas, variations were observed both in terms of morphology and density. We distinguished two major classes of DBC horse-tails: the thicker complex type (type I) that had more axon collaterals; and the simple type (type II). The density of DBC horse-tails was significantly higher in areas 17, 18, 22, and 4 than in areas 3b and 10. Moreover, the proportion of type I and type II DBC horse-tails varied in the cortical areas studied. We also examined the distribution of DBC horse-tails in frontal, parietal, and occipital areas of different mammalian species. We found DBCs to be present in carnivores but not in rodents, lagomorphs, or artiodactyls. In carnivores, relatively few DBC horse-tails can be identified and they were generally found in the occipital cortex. Therefore, there is significant variability in the morphology and distribution of DBC horse-tails in different species and cortical areas. We conclude that, although these interneurons may be an important element in the organization of cortical microcolumns in primates, this is not the case in other mammalian species.

Emphysematous Pyelonephritis in Dialysis Patient After Embolization of Failed Allograft

Urology. Aug, 2007  |  Pubmed ID: 17826516

Emphysematous pyelonephritis is an uncommon acute infection characterized by the presence of gas in the renal parenchyma. Diabetics account for most cases, and the mortality rate is high. We report a case of emphysematous pyelonephritis after therapeutic embolization of a nonfunctioning renal graft in a nondiabetic dialysis patient. Given the increasing popularity of therapeutic embolization to control graft intolerance syndrome associated with rejected kidneys, physicians should be aware of this potentially severe complication. We discuss the differential diagnosis from entities requiring different management strategies, such as postembolization syndrome, persistence of graft intolerance, and the presence of sterile intrarenal.

Melanin Precursors Prevent Premature Age-related and Noise-induced Hearing Loss in Albino Mice

Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research. Feb, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 19843244

Strial melanocytes are required for normal development and correct functioning of the cochlea. Hearing deficits have been reported in albino individuals from different species, although melanin appears to be not essential for normal auditory function. We have analyzed the auditory brainstem responses (ABR) of two transgenic mice: YRT2, carrying the entire mouse tyrosinase (Tyr) gene expression-domain and undistinguishable from wild-type pigmented animals; and TyrTH, non-pigmented but ectopically expressing tyrosine hydroxylase (Th) in melanocytes, which generate the precursor metabolite, L-DOPA, but not melanin. We show that young albino mice present a higher prevalence of profound sensorineural deafness and a poorer recovery of auditory thresholds after noise-exposure than transgenic mice. Hearing loss was associated with absence of cochlear melanin or its precursor metabolites and latencies of the central auditory pathway were unaltered. In summary, albino mice show impaired hearing responses during ageing and after noise damage when compared to YRT2 and TyrTH transgenic mice, which do not show the albino-associated ABR alterations. These results demonstrate that melanin precursors, such as L-DOPA, have a protective role in the mammalian cochlea in age-related and noise-induced hearing loss.

A Comparative Study of Age-related Hearing Loss in Wild Type and Insulin-like Growth Factor I Deficient Mice

Frontiers in Neuroanatomy. 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 20661454

Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) belongs to the family of insulin-related peptides that fulfils a key role during the late development of the nervous system. Human IGF1 mutations cause profound deafness, poor growth and mental retardation. Accordingly, Igf1(-/-) null mice are dwarfs that have low survival rates, cochlear alterations and severe sensorineural deafness. Presbycusis (age-related hearing loss) is a common disorder associated with aging that causes social and cognitive problems. Aging is also associated with a decrease in circulating IGF-I levels and this reduction has been related to cognitive and brain alterations, although there is no information as yet regarding the relationship between presbycusis and IGF-I biodisponibility. Here we present a longitudinal study of wild type Igf1(+/+) and null Igf1(-/-) mice from 2 to 12 months of age comparing the temporal progression of several parameters: hearing, brain morphology, cochlear cytoarchitecture, insulin-related factors and IGF gene expression and IGF-I serum levels. Complementary invasive and non-invasive techniques were used, including auditory brainstem-evoked response (ABR) recordings and in vivo MRI brain imaging. Igf1(-/-) null mice presented profound deafness at all the ages studied, without any obvious worsening of hearing parameters with aging. Igf1(+/+) wild type mice suffered significant age-related hearing loss, their auditory thresholds and peak I latencies augmenting as they aged, in parallel with a decrease in the circulating levels of IGF-I. Accordingly, there was an age-related spiral ganglion degeneration in wild type mice that was not evident in the Igf1 null mice. However, the Igf1(-/-) null mice in turn developed a prematurely aged stria vascularis reminiscent of the diabetic strial phenotype. Our data indicate that IGF-I is required for the correct development and maintenance of hearing, supporting the idea that IGF-I-based therapies could contribute to prevent or ameliorate age-related hearing loss.

Early Development of the Vertebrate Inner Ear

Anatomical Record (Hoboken, N.J. : 2007). Nov, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 23044927

This is a review of the biological processes and the main signaling pathways required to generate the different otic cell types, with particular emphasis on the actions of insulin-like growth factor I. The sensory organs responsible of hearing and balance have a common embryonic origin in the otic placode. Lineages of neural, sensory, and support cells are generated from common otic neuroepithelial progenitors. The sequential generation of the cell types that will form the adult inner ear requires the coordination of cell proliferation with cell differentiation programs, the strict regulation of cell survival, and the metabolic homeostasis of otic precursors. A network of intracellular signals operates to coordinate the transcriptional response to the extracellular input. Understanding the molecular clues that direct otic development is fundamental for the design of novel treatments for the protection and repair of hearing loss and balance disorders.

IGF-I Deficiency and Hearing Loss: Molecular Clues and Clinical Implications

Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews : PER. Jul, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23957197

Sensorineural hearing loss is a clinical heterogeneous disorder and a significant health-care problem with tremendous socio-economic impact. According to WHO, "Over 5% of the world's population has disabling hearing loss -328 million adults and 32 million children-". In children, early hearing loss affects language acquisition. Hearing deficits are generally associated with the loss of the sensory "hair" cells and/or neurons caused by primary genetic defects or secondary to environmental factors including infections, noise and ototoxic drugs. Hearing loss cannot be reversed and currently the available treatment is limited to hearing aids and cochlear implants. Studies are being conducted to develop alternative treatments combining both preventive and reparative strategies. Human insulin like growth factor (IGF) I deficiency is a rare disease associated with hearing loss, poor growth rates and mental retardation (ORPHA73272, OMIM608747). Similarly, lgf1-/- mice are dwarfs with poor survival rates and congenital profound sensorineural deafness. IGF-I is known to be a neuroprotective agent that maintains cellular metabolism, activates growth, proliferation and differentiation, and limits cell death. Here we will discuss the basic mechanisms underlying IGF-I actions in the auditory system and their clinical implications to pursue novel treatments to ameliorate hearing loss.

Programmed Cell Senescence During Mammalian Embryonic Development

Cell. Nov, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 24238962

Cellular senescence disables proliferation in damaged cells, and it is relevant for cancer and aging. Here, we show that senescence occurs during mammalian embryonic development at multiple locations, including the mesonephros and the endolymphatic sac of the inner ear, which we have analyzed in detail. Mechanistically, senescence in both structures is strictly dependent on p21, but independent of DNA damage, p53, or other cell-cycle inhibitors, and it is regulated by the TGF-β/SMAD and PI3K/FOXO pathways. Developmentally programmed senescence is followed by macrophage infiltration, clearance of senescent cells, and tissue remodeling. Loss of senescence due to the absence of p21 is partially compensated by apoptosis but still results in detectable developmental abnormalities. Importantly, the mesonephros and endolymphatic sac of human embryos also show evidence of senescence. We conclude that the role of developmentally programmed senescence is to promote tissue remodeling and propose that this is the evolutionary origin of damage-induced senescence.

[The Molecular Basis of Infections Associated to Orthopedic Implants]

Revista Chilena De Infectologia : Organo Oficial De La Sociedad Chilena De Infectologia. Jun, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 25146206

Infections associated with the use of orthopedic implants are still the major complication associated with these devices and an unsolved challenge. The frequency of infection associated with orthopedic implant is relatively low, estimated to range between 0.5 to 5%. However, it has devastating consequences for the patient and health institutions. The majority of infections is secondary to gram-positive aerobic microorganisms belonging to the genus Staphylococcus. These bacteria establish chronic infections due to its ability of adhesion and biofilm formation. Biofilms are complex communities in a polysaccharide matrix. This structure retains nutrients and protects the bacteria against the immune response and antimicrobial agents. The study of molecular characteristics and biofilm formation regulation is vital for the understanding of judicious clinical management and the development of novel strategies for the prevention of infection.

Differential Organ Phenotypes After Postnatal Igf1r Gene Conditional Deletion Induced by Tamoxifen in UBC-CreERT2; Igf1r Fl/fl Double Transgenic Mice

Transgenic Research. Apr, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25238791

Insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor (IGF1R) is a ubiquitously expressed tyrosine kinase that regulates cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. It controls body growth and organ homeostasis, but with specific functions depending on developmental time and cell type. Human deficiency in IGF1R is involved in growth failure, microcephaly, mental retardation and deafness, and its overactivation is implicated in oncogenesis. Igf1r-deficient mice die at birth due to growth retardation and respiratory failure. Although multiple Igf1r tissue-specific mutant lines have been analyzed postnatally, using Igf1r-floxed (Igf1r (fl/fl) ) mice mated with diverse cell-type recombinase Cre-expressing transgenics, no mouse models for the study of generalized Igf1r deficiency in adults have been reported. To this end we generated UBC-CreERT2; Igf1r (fl/fl) transgenic mice with an inducible deletion of Igf1r activated by tamoxifen. Tamoxifen administration to 4 week-old prepuberal male mice delayed their growth, producing a distinct impact on organ size 4 weeks later. Whereas testes were smaller, spleen and heart showed an increased organ to body weight ratio. Mosaic Igf1r genomic deletions caused a significant reduction in Igf1r mRNA in all organs analyzed, resulting in diverse phenotypes. While kidneys, spleen and cochlea had unaltered gross morphology, testes revealed halted spermatogenesis, and liver and alveolar lung parenchyma showed increased cell proliferation rates without affecting apoptosis. We demonstrate that UBC-CreERT2 transgenic mice efficiently delete Igf1r upon postnatal tamoxifen treatment in multiple mouse organs, and corroborate that IGF1R function is highly dependent on cell, tissue and organ type.

Swept-sine Noise-induced Damage As a Hearing Loss Model for Preclinical Assays

Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience. 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25762930

Mouse models are key tools for studying cochlear alterations in noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) and for evaluating new therapies. Stimuli used to induce deafness in mice are usually white and octave band noises that include very low frequencies, considering the large mouse auditory range. We designed different sound stimuli, enriched in frequencies up to 20 kHz ("violet" noises) to examine their impact on hearing thresholds and cochlear cytoarchitecture after short exposure. In addition, we developed a cytocochleogram to quantitatively assess the ensuing structural degeneration and its functional correlation. Finally, we used this mouse model and cochleogram procedure to evaluate the potential therapeutic effect of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) inhibitors P17 and P144 on NIHL. CBA mice were exposed to violet swept-sine noise (VS) with different frequency ranges (2-20 or 9-13 kHz) and levels (105 or 120 dB SPL) for 30 min. Mice were evaluated by auditory brainstem response (ABR) and otoacoustic emission tests prior to and 2, 14 and 28 days after noise exposure. Cochlear pathology was assessed with gross histology; hair cell number was estimated by a stereological counting method. Our results indicate that functional and morphological changes induced by VS depend on the sound level and frequency composition. Partial hearing recovery followed the exposure to 105 dB SPL, whereas permanent cochlear damage resulted from the exposure to 120 dB SPL. Exposure to 9-13 kHz noise caused an auditory threshold shift (TS) in those frequencies that correlated with hair cell loss in the corresponding areas of the cochlea that were spotted on the cytocochleogram. In summary, we present mouse models of NIHL, which depending on the sound properties of the noise, cause different degrees of cochlear damage, and could therefore be used to study molecules which are potential players in hearing loss protection and repair.

Transforming Growth Factor β1 Inhibition Protects from Noise-induced Hearing Loss

Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience. 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25852546

Excessive exposure to noise damages the principal cochlear structures leading to hearing impairment. Inflammatory and immune responses are central mechanisms in cochlear defensive response to noise but, if unregulated, they contribute to inner ear damage and hearing loss. Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) is a key regulator of both responses and high levels of this factor have been associated with cochlear injury in hearing loss animal models. To evaluate the potential of targeting TGF-β as a therapeutic strategy for preventing or ameliorating noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), we studied the auditory function, cochlear morphology, gene expression and oxidative stress markers in mice exposed to noise and treated with TGF-β1 peptidic inhibitors P17 and P144, just before or immediately after noise insult. Our results indicate that systemic administration of both peptides significantly improved both the evolution of hearing thresholds and the degenerative changes induced by noise-exposure in lateral wall structures. Moreover, treatments ameliorated the inflammatory state and redox balance. These therapeutic effects were dose-dependent and more effective if the TGF-β1 inhibitors were administered prior to inducing the injury. In conclusion, inhibition of TGF-β1 actions with antagonistic peptides represents a new, promising therapeutic strategy for the prevention and repair of noise-induced cochlear damage.

Corrigendum: Transforming Growth Factor β1 Inhibition Protects from Noise-induced Hearing Loss

Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience. 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 26005416

Corrigendum To: Swept-sine Noise-induced Damage As a Hearing Loss Model for Preclinical Assays

Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience. 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 26029100

[This corrects the article on p. 7 in vol. 7, PMID: 25762930.].

[Community Associated-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (SAMR-AC): Comunication of the First Four Pediatric Cases in the Roberto Del Rio Children's Hospital]

Revista Chilena De Infectologia : Organo Oficial De La Sociedad Chilena De Infectologia. Jun, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 26230445

Staphylococcus aureus is a known pathogen in pediatric patients that produces skin infections, cutaneous abscess, cellulitis and osteoarticular infections. Most of these infections are produced by a meticilin susceptible strain. The community associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus was published for the first time in 1993, ever since then is has been recognized as a cosmopolite pathogen. The first report in Latin America was published in 2003, and in Chile in 2008 from adult patients that have reported traveling to other countries. The following series describes four pediatric cases, all school-aged children, diagnosed since 2012 with clinical followups and molecular studies. Two cases presented as osteomyelitis of the lower extremity; and one presented as arm cellulitis. These three cases had Panton Valentine leukocidine (PV-L) negative strains from the clone complex 8. The last case presented a renal abscess, the strain was PV-L positive from the clone complex 30. This case series constitutes the first pediatric case report in Chile.

Comparative Gene Expression Study of the Vestibular Organ of the Igf1 Deficient Mouse Using Whole-transcript Arrays

Hearing Research. Dec, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 26341476

The auditory and vestibular organs form the inner ear and have a common developmental origin. Insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) has a central role in the development of the cochlea and maintenance of hearing. Its deficiency causes sensorineural hearing loss in man and mice. During chicken early development, IGF-1 modulates neurogenesis of the cochleovestibular ganglion but no further studies have been conducted to explore the potential role of IGF-1 in the vestibular system. In this study we have compared the whole transcriptome of the vestibular organ from wild type and Igf1(-/-) mice at different developmental and postnatal times. RNA was prepared from E18.5, P15 and P90 vestibular organs of Igf1(-/-) and Igf1(+/+) mice and the transcriptome analysed in triplicates using Affymetrix(®) Mouse Gene 1.1 ST Array Plates. These plates are whole-transcript arrays that include probes to measure both messenger (mRNA) and long intergenic non-coding RNA transcripts (lincRNA), with a coverage of over 28 thousand coding transcripts and over 7 thousands non-coding transcripts. Given the complexity of the data we used two different methods VSN-RMA and mmBGX to analyse and compare the data. This is to better evaluate the number of false positives and to quantify uncertainty of low signals. We identified a number of differentially expressed genes that we described using functional analysis and validated using RT-qPCR. The morphology of the vestibular organ did not show differences between genotypes and no evident alterations were observed in the vestibular sensory areas of the null mice. However, well-defined cellular alterations were found in the vestibular neurons with respect their number and size. Although these mice did not show a dramatic vestibular phenotype, we conducted a functional analysis on differentially expressed genes between genotypes and across time. This was with the aim to identify new pathways that are involved in the development of the vestibular organ as well as pathways that maybe affected by the lack of IGF-1 and be associated to the morphological changes of the vestibular neurons that we observed in the Igf1(-/-) mice.

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