Articles by Justin N. Williams in JoVE
The Generation of Closed Femoral Fractures in Mice: A Model to Study Bone Healing Justin N. Williams1, Yong Li1, Anuradha Valiya Kambrath1, Uma Sankar1 1Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine The murine closed femoral fracture model is a powerful platform to study fracture healing and novel therapeutic strategies to accelerate bone regeneration. The goal of this surgical protocol is to generate unilateral closed femoral fractures in mice using an intramedullary steel rod to stabilize the femur.
Other articles by Justin N. Williams on PubMed
Raloxifene Prevents Skeletal Fragility in Adult Female Zucker Diabetic Sprague-Dawley Rats PloS One. 2014 | Pubmed ID: 25243714 Fracture risk in type 2 diabetes is increased despite normal or high bone mineral density, implicating poor bone quality as a risk factor. Raloxifene improves bone material and mechanical properties independent of bone mineral density. This study aimed to determine if raloxifene prevents the negative effects of diabetes on skeletal fragility in diabetes-prone rats. Adult Zucker Diabetic Sprague-Dawley (ZDSD) female rats (20-week-old, n = 24) were fed a diabetogenic high-fat diet and were randomized to receive daily subcutaneous injections of raloxifene or vehicle for 12 weeks. Blood glucose was measured weekly and glycated hemoglobin was measured at baseline and 12 weeks. At sacrifice, femora and lumbar vertebrae were harvested for imaging and mechanical testing. Raloxifene-treated rats had a lower incidence of type 2 diabetes compared with vehicle-treated rats. In addition, raloxifene-treated rats had blood glucose levels significantly lower than both diabetic vehicle-treated rats as well as vehicle-treated rats that did not become diabetic. Femoral toughness was greater in raloxifene-treated rats compared with both diabetic and non-diabetic vehicle-treated ZDSD rats, due to greater energy absorption in the post-yield region of the stress-strain curve. Similar differences between groups were observed for the structural (extrinsic) mechanical properties of energy-to-failure, post-yield energy-to-failure, and post-yield displacement. These results show that raloxifene is beneficial in preventing the onset of diabetes and improving bone material properties in the diabetes-prone ZDSD rat. This presents unique therapeutic potential for raloxifene in preserving bone quality in diabetes as well as in diabetes prevention, if these results can be supported by future experimental and clinical studies.
Inhibition of CaMKK2 Enhances Fracture Healing by Stimulating Indian Hedgehog Signaling and Accelerating Endochondral Ossification Journal of Bone and Mineral Research : the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. May, 2018 | Pubmed ID: 29314250 Approximately 10% of all bone fractures do not heal, resulting in patient morbidity and healthcare costs. However, no pharmacological treatments are currently available to promote efficient bone healing. Inhibition of Ca /calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase kinase 2 (CaMKK2) reverses age-associated loss of trabecular and cortical bone volume and strength in mice. In the current study, we investigated the role of CaMKK2 in bone fracture healing and show that its pharmacological inhibition using STO-609 accelerates early cellular and molecular events associated with endochondral ossification, resulting in a more rapid and efficient healing of the fracture. Within 7 days postfracture, treatment with STO-609 resulted in enhanced Indian hedgehog signaling, paired-related homeobox (PRX1)-positive mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) recruitment, and chondrocyte differentiation and hypertrophy, along with elevated expression of osterix, vascular endothelial growth factor, and type 1 collagen at the fracture callus. Early deposition of primary bone by osteoblasts resulted in STO-609-treated mice possessing significantly higher callus bone volume by 14 days following fracture. Subsequent rapid maturation of the bone matrix bestowed fractured bones in STO-609-treated animals with significantly higher torsional strength and stiffness by 28 days postinjury, indicating accelerated healing of the fracture. Previous studies indicate that fixed and closed femoral fractures in the mice take 35 days to fully heal without treatment. Therefore, our data suggest that STO-609 potentiates a 20% acceleration of the bone healing process. Moreover, inhibiting CaMKK2 also imparted higher mechanical strength and stiffness at the contralateral cortical bone within 4 weeks of treatment. Taken together, the data presented here underscore the therapeutic potential of targeting CaMKK2 to promote efficacious and rapid healing of bone fractures and as a mechanism to strengthen normal bones. © 2018 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.