In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (9)
- International Journal of Molecular Sciences
- Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Folia Pharmacologica Japonica
- BioMed Research International
- Scientific Reports
- Mediators of Inflammation
- Nature Communications
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
- Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Articles by Kanato Yamagata in JoVE
Pentylenetetrazole-Induced Kindling Mouse Model Tadayuki Shimada1, Kanato Yamagata1 1Synaptic Plasticity Project, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science This protocol describes a method of chemical kindling with pentylenetetrazole and provides a mouse model of epilepsy. This protocol can also be used to investigate vulnerability to seizure induction and pathogenesis after epileptic seizures in mice.
Other articles by Kanato Yamagata on PubMed
Intercellular Signaling Pathway Among Endothelia, Astrocytes and Neurons in Excitatory Neuronal Damage International Journal of Molecular Sciences. | Pubmed ID: 23591846 Neurons interact closely with astrocytes via glutamate; this neuron-glia circuit may play a pivotal role in synaptic transmission. On the other hand, astrocytes contact vascular endothelial cells with their end-feet. It is becoming obvious that non-neuronal cells play a critical role in regulating the neuronal activity in the brain. We find that kainic acid (KA) administration induces the expression of microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) in venous endothelial cells and the prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) receptor prostaglandin E receptor (EP)-3 on astrocytes. Endothelial mPGES-1 exacerbates KA-induced neuronal damage in in vivo experiments. In in vitro experiments, mPGES-1 produces PGE2, which enhances astrocytic Ca2+ levels via the EP3 receptor and increases Ca2+-dependent glutamate release, thus aggravating neuronal injury. This novel endothelium-astrocyte-neuron signaling pathway may be crucial for driving neuronal damage after repetitive seizures and could be a new therapeutic target for epilepsy and other brain disorders.
Neuroprotective Function of 14-3-3 Proteins in Neurodegeneration BioMed Research International. | Pubmed ID: 24364034 14-3-3 proteins are abundantly expressed adaptor proteins that interact with a vast number of binding partners to regulate their cellular localization and function. They regulate substrate function in a number of ways including protection from dephosphorylation, regulation of enzyme activity, formation of ternary complexes and sequestration. The diversity of 14-3-3 interacting partners thus enables 14-3-3 proteins to impact a wide variety of cellular and physiological processes. 14-3-3 proteins are broadly expressed in the brain, and clinical and experimental studies have implicated 14-3-3 proteins in neurodegenerative disease. A recurring theme is that 14-3-3 proteins play important roles in pathogenesis through regulating the subcellular localization of target proteins. Here, we review the evidence that 14-3-3 proteins regulate aspects of neurodegenerative disease with a focus on their protective roles against neurodegeneration.
Activation of Rheb, but Not of MTORC1, Impairs Spine Synapse Morphogenesis in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Scientific Reports. | Pubmed ID: 24889507 Mutations in the Tsc1 or Tsc2 genes cause tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). Tsc1 and Tsc2 proteins form a complex that inhibits mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signalling through Rheb-GTPase. We found that Tsc2(+/-) neurons showed impaired spine synapse formation, which was resistant to an mTORC1 inhibitor. Knockdown of mTOR also failed to restore these abnormalities, suggesting mTORC may not participate in impaired spinogenesis in Tsc2(+/-) neurons. To address whether Rheb activation impairs spine synapse formation, we expressed active and inactive forms of Rheb in WT and Tsc2(+/-) neurons, respectively. Expression of active Rheb abolished dendritic spine formation in WT neurons, whereas inactive Rheb restored spine synapse formation in Tsc2(+/-) neurons. Moreover, inactivation of Rheb with farnesyl transferase inhibitors recovered spine synapse morphogenesis in Tsc2(+/-) neurons. In conclusion, dendritic spine abnormalities in TSC neurons may be caused through activation of Rheb, but not through of mTORC1.
Role of Inflammatory Mediators in the Pathogenesis of Epilepsy Mediators of Inflammation. | Pubmed ID: 25197169 Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic brain disorders worldwide, affecting 1% of people across different ages and backgrounds. Epilepsy is defined as the sporadic occurrence of spontaneous recurrent seizures. Accumulating preclinical and clinical evidence suggest that there is a positive feedback cycle between epileptogenesis and brain inflammation. Epileptic seizures increase key inflammatory mediators, which in turn cause secondary damage to the brain and increase the likelihood of recurrent seizures. Cytokines and prostaglandins are well-known inflammatory mediators in the brain, and their biosynthesis is enhanced following seizures. Such inflammatory mediators could be therapeutic targets for the development of new antiepileptic drugs. In this review, we discuss the roles of inflammatory mediators in epileptogenesis.
Rheb Activation Disrupts Spine Synapse Formation Through Accumulation of Syntenin in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Nature Communications. | Pubmed ID: 25880340 Rheb is a small GTP-binding protein and its GTPase activity is activated by the complex of Tsc1 and Tsc2 whose mutations cause tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). We previously reported that cultured TSC neurons showed impaired spine synapse morphogenesis in an mTORC1-independent manner. Here we show that the PDZ protein syntenin preferentially binds to the GDP-bound form of Rheb. The levels of syntenin are significantly higher in TSC neurons than in wild-type neurons because the Rheb-GDP-syntenin complex is prone to proteasomal degradation. Accumulated syntenin in TSC neurons disrupts spine synapse formation through inhibition of the association between syndecan-2 and calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase. Instead, syntenin enhances excitatory shaft synapse formation on dendrites by interacting with ephrinB3. Downregulation of syntenin in TSC neurons restores both spine and shaft synapse densities. These findings suggest that Rheb-syntenin signalling may be a novel therapeutic target for abnormalities in spine and shaft synapses in TSC neurons.
Glucose-dependent Acetylation of Rictor Promotes Targeted Cancer Therapy Resistance Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. | Pubmed ID: 26170313 Cancer cells adapt their signaling in response to nutrient availability. To uncover the mechanisms regulating this process and its functional consequences, we interrogated cell lines, mouse tumor models, and clinical samples of glioblastoma (GBM), the highly lethal brain cancer. We discovered that glucose or acetate is required for epidermal growth factor receptor vIII (EGFRvIII), the most common growth factor receptor mutation in GBM, to activate mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) and promote tumor growth. Glucose or acetate promoted growth factor receptor signaling through acetyl-CoA-dependent acetylation of Rictor, a core component of the mTORC2 signaling complex. Remarkably, in the presence of elevated glucose levels, Rictor acetylation is maintained to form an autoactivation loop of mTORC2 even when the upstream components of the growth factor receptor signaling pathway are no longer active, thus rendering GBMs resistant to EGFR-, PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase)-, or AKT (v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog)-targeted therapies. These results demonstrate that elevated nutrient levels can drive resistance to targeted cancer treatments and nominate mTORC2 as a central node for integrating growth factor signaling with nutrient availability in GBM.
Neuritin Mediates Activity-Dependent Axonal Branch Formation in Part Via FGF Signaling The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. | Pubmed ID: 27098696 Aberrant branch formation of granule cell axons (mossy fiber sprouting) is observed in the dentate gyrus of many patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and in animal models of epilepsy. However, the mechanisms underlying mossy fiber sprouting remain elusive. Based on the hypothesis that seizure-mediated gene expression induces abnormal mossy fiber growth, we screened activity-regulated genes in the hippocampus and found that neuritin, an extracellular protein anchored to the cell surface, was rapidly upregulated after electroconvulsive seizures. Overexpression of neuritin in the cultured rat granule cells promoted their axonal branching. Also, kainic acid-dependent axonal branching was abolished in the cultured granule cells fromneuritinknock-out mice, suggesting that neuritin may be involved in activity-dependent axonal branching. Moreover,neuritinknock-out mice showed less-severe seizures in chemical kindling probably by reduced mossy fiber sprouting and/or increased seizure resistance. We found that inhibition of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor attenuated the neuritin-dependent axonal branching. FGF administration also increased branching in granule neurons, whereasneuritinknock-out mice did not show FGF-dependent axonal branching. In addition, FGF and neuritin treatment enhanced the recruitment of FGF receptors to the cell surface. These findings suggest that neuritin and FGF cooperate in inducing mossy fiber sprouting through FGF signaling. Together, these results suggest that FGF and neuritin-mediated axonal branch induction are involved in the aggravation of epilepsy.
Brain Interleukin-1 Facilitates Learning of a Water Maze Spatial Memory Task in Young Mice Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience. | Pubmed ID: 29123474 The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) is produced by many types of cells, including immune cells in the periphery and glia and neurons in the brain. The type I IL-1 receptor (IL-1r1) is primarily responsible for transmitting the inflammatory effects of IL-1 and mediates several biological functions by binding to either IL-1α or IL-1β. IL-1β activation is associated with hippocampus-dependent memory tasks. Although IL-1β impairs spatial memory under certain pathophysiological conditions, IL-1β may be required for the normal physiological regulation of hippocampal plasticity and memory. In addition, brain IL-1β levels are thought to change in the hippocampus in an age-dependent manner. These findings suggest that IL-1β may have a beneficial, temporary effect on learning and memory in young mice, but the matter remains unclear. Therefore, we hypothesized that hippocampal IL-1β has a beneficial effect on spatial learning and memory in young mice via IL-1r1, which is diminished in adults. We investigated the performance of young (3-month-old) and adult (6-month-old) wild-type mice, IL-1β knockout mice (IL-1βko) and IL-1r1 knockout mice (IL-1r1ko) in learning a spatial memory task with a fixed platform in a water maze (WM) and measured the levels of IL-1β and IL-1α in the hippocampus and cortex of adult and young mice by using homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence (HTRF). Learning was significantly impaired in the training trials of the WM spatial memory task in young IL-1βko and IL-1r1ko mice but not in adult IL-1βko and IL-1r1ko mice. Moreover, young IL-1r1ko mice but not IL-1βko mice showed an impairment in long-term memory extinction, suggesting that IL-1α might facilitate memory extinction. In this study, the cytokine assay using HTRF did not indicate a higher expression of hippocampal IL-1 in young mice but cortical IL-1β and IL-1α were significantly increased in adult mice. We need to investigate the role of cortical IL-1 and the local IL-1 expression in the hippocampal neurons in the future.