Articles by Katelyn B. Sondereker in JoVE
Where You Cut Matters: A Dissection and Analysis Guide for the Spatial Orientation of the Mouse Retina from Ocular Landmarks Katelyn B. Sondereker1, Maureen E. Stabio2, Jenna R. Jamil1, Matthew J. Tarchick1, Jordan M. Renna1 1Department of Biology, The University of Akron, 2Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Colorado Denver This protocol provides a comprehensive dissection and analysis guide for the use of deep ocular landmarks, s-opsin immunohistochemistry, Retistruct, and custom code to accurately and reliably orient the isolated mouse retina in anatomical space.
Other articles by Katelyn B. Sondereker on PubMed
Melanopsin Ganglion Cell Outer Retinal Dendrites: Morphologically Distinct and Asymmetrically Distributed in the Mouse Retina The Journal of Comparative Neurology. Dec, 2017 | Pubmed ID: 28758193 A small population of retinal ganglion cells expresses the photopigment melanopsin and function as autonomous photoreceptors. They encode global luminance levels critical for light-mediated non-image forming visual processes including circadian rhythms and the pupillary light reflex. There are five melanopsin ganglion cell subtypes (M1-M5). M1 and displaced M1 (M1d) cells have dendrites that ramify within the outermost layer of the inner plexiform layer. It was recently discovered that some melanopsin ganglion cells extend dendrites into the outer retina. Outer Retinal Dendrites (ORDs) either ramify within the outer plexiform layer (OPL) or the inner nuclear layer, and while present in the mature retina, are most abundant postnatally. Anatomical evidence for synaptic transmission between cone photoreceptor terminals and ORDs suggests a novel photoreceptor to ganglion cell connection in the mammalian retina. While it is known that the number of ORDs in the retina is developmentally regulated, little is known about the morphology, the cells from which they originate, or their spatial distribution throughout the retina. We analyzed the morphology of melanopsin-immunopositive ORDs in the OPL at different developmental time points in the mouse retina and identified five types of ORDs originating from either M1 or M1d cells. However, a pattern emerges within these: ORDs from M1d cells are generally longer and more highly branched than ORDs from conventional M1 cells. Additionally, we found ORDs asymmetrically distributed to the dorsal retina. This morphological analysis provides the first step in identifying a potential role for biplexiform melanopsin ganglion cell ORDs.
A Novel Map of the Mouse Eye for Orienting Retinal Topography in Anatomical Space The Journal of Comparative Neurology. Aug, 2018 | Pubmed ID: 29633277 Functionally distinct retinal ganglion cells have density and size gradients across the mouse retina, and some degenerative eye diseases follow topographic-specific gradients of cell death. Hence, the anatomical orientation of the retina with respect to the orbit and head is important for understanding the functional anatomy of the retina in both health and disease. However, different research groups use different anatomical landmarks to determine retinal orientation (dorsal, ventral, temporal, nasal poles). Variations in the accuracy and reliability in marking these landmarks during dissection may lead to discrepancies in the identification and reporting of retinal topography. The goal of this study was to compare the accuracy and reliability of the canthus, rectus muscle, and choroid fissure landmarks in reporting retinal orientation. The retinal relieving cut angle made from each landmark during dissection was calculated based on its relationship to the opsin transition zone (OTZ), determined via a custom MATLAB script that aligns retinas from immunostained s-opsin. The choroid fissure and rectus muscle landmarks were the most accurate and reliable, while burn marks using the canthus as a reference were the least. These values were used to build an anatomical map that plots various ocular landmarks in relationship to one another, to the horizontal semicircular canals, to lambda-bregma, and to the earth's horizon. Surprisingly, during normal locomotion, the mouse's opsin gradient and the horizontal semicircular canals make equivalent 6° angles aligning the OTZ near the earth's horizon, a feature which may enhance the mouse's ability to visually navigate through its environment.