Articles by Katelyn E. Sadler in JoVE
Urinary Bladder Distention Evoked Visceromotor Responses as a Model for Bladder Pain in Mice Katelyn E. Sadler1, Jarred M. Stratton1, Benedict J. Kolber1 1Department of Biological Sciences and Chronic Pain Research Consortium, Duquesne University Approximately 3-8 million people in the United States suffer from interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS), a debilitating condition characterized in part by pelvic pain. In order to study nervous system contributions to the condition, a physiological model of urinary bladder pain is used in mice and rats.
Other articles by Katelyn E. Sadler on PubMed
Central Amygdala Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 5 in the Modulation of Visceral Pain The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. Oct, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 23055491 Painful bladder syndrome is a debilitating condition that affects 3-6% of women in the United States. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that changes in CNS processing are key to the development of chronic bladder pain conditions but little is known regarding the underlying cellular, molecular, and neuronal mechanisms. Using a mouse model of distention-induced bladder pain, we found that the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) is a critical site of neuromodulation for processing of bladder nociception. Furthermore, we demonstrate that metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) activation in the CeA induces bladder pain sensitization by increasing CeA output. Thus, pharmacological activation of mGluR5 in the CeA is sufficient to increase the response to bladder distention. Additionally, pharmacological blockade or virally mediated conditional deletion of mGluR5 in the CeA reduced responses to bladder distention suggesting that mGluR5 in the CeA is also necessary for these responses. Finally, we used optogenetic activation of the CeA and demonstrated that this caused a robust increase in the visceral pain response. The CeA-localized effects on responses to bladder distention are associated with changes in extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation in the spinal cord. Overall, these data demonstrate that mGluR5 activation leads to increased CeA output that drives bladder pain sensitization.
Optimization of a Pain Model: Effects of Body Temperature and Anesthesia on Bladder Nociception in Mice PloS One. 2013 | Pubmed ID: 24223980 Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) is a debilitating urological condition that is resistant to treatment and poorly understood. To determine novel molecular treatment targets and to elucidate the contribution of the nervous system to IC/BPS, many rodent bladder pain models have been developed. In this study we evaluated the effects of anesthesia induction and temperature variation in a mouse model of bladder pain known as urinary bladder distension (UBD). In this model compressed air is used to distend the bladder to distinct pressures while electrodes record the reflexive visceromotor response (VMR) from the overlying abdominal muscle. Two isoflurane induction models are commonly used before UBD: a short method lasting approximately 30 minutes and a long method lasting approximately 90 minutes. Animals were anesthetized with one of the methods then put through three sets of graded bladder distensions. Distensions performed following the short anesthesia protocol were significantly different from one another despite identical testing parameters; this same effect was not observed when the long anesthesia protocol was used. In order to determine the effect of temperature on VMRs, animals were put through three graded distension sets at 37.5 (normal mouse body temperature), 35.5, and 33.5°C. Distensions performed at 33.5 and 35.5°C were significantly lower than those performed at 37.5°C. Additionally, Western blot analysis revealed significantly smaller increases in spinal levels of phosphorylated extracellular-signal regulated kinase 2 (pERK2) following bladder distension in animals whose body temperature was maintained at 33.5°C as opposed to 37.5°C. These results highlight the significance of the dynamic effects of anesthesia on pain-like changes and the importance of close monitoring of temperature while performing UBD. For successful interpretation of VMRs and translation to human disease, body temperature should be maintained at 37.5°C and isoflurane induction should gradually decrease over the course of 90 minutes.