In JoVE (1)
Articles by Kevin M. Tyo in JoVE
Fabrication and Characterization of Griffithsin-modified Fiber Scaffolds for Prevention of Sexually Transmitted Infections Hung R. Vuong*1, Kevin M. Tyo*2,3, Jill M. Steinbach-Rankins2,3,4,5 1Department of Chemistry, University of Louisville, 2Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville, 3Center for Predictive Medicine, University of Louisville, 4Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Louisville, 5Department of Bioengineering, University of Louisville This manuscript describes the procedure to fabricate and characterize Griffithsin-modified poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) electrospun fibers that demonstrate potent adhesive and antiviral activity against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in vitro. Methods used to synthesize, surface-modify, and characterize the resulting morphology, conjugation, and desorption of Griffithsin from surface-modified fibers are described.
Other articles by Kevin M. Tyo on PubMed
Griffithsin-Modified Electrospun Fibers As a Delivery Scaffold To Prevent HIV Infection Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. | Pubmed ID: 27550363 Despite current prophylactic strategies, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) remain significant contributors to global health challenges, spurring the development of new multipurpose delivery technologies to protect individuals from and treat virus infections. However, there are few methods currently available to prevent and no method to date that cures human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or combinations of STIs. While current oral and topical preexposure prophylaxes have protected against HIV infection, they have primarily relied on antiretrovirals (ARVs) to inhibit infection. Yet continued challenges with ARVs include user adherence to daily treatment regimens and the potential toxicity and antiviral resistance associated with chronic use. The integration of new biological agents may avert some of these adverse effects while also providing new mechanisms to prevent infection. Of the biologic-based antivirals, griffithsin (GRFT) has demonstrated potent inhibition of HIV-1 (and a multitude of other viruses) by adhering to and inactivating HIV-1 immediately upon contact. In parallel with the development of GRFT, electrospun fibers (EFs) have emerged as a promising platform for the delivery of agents active against HIV infection. In the study described here, our goal was to extend the mechanistic diversity of active agents and electrospun fibers by incorporating the biologic GRFT on the EF surface rather than within the EFs to inactivate HIV prior to cellular entry. We fabricated and characterized GRFT-modified EFs (GRFT-EFs) with different surface modification densities of GRFT and demonstrated their safety and efficacy against HIV-1 infection in vitro We believe that EFs are a unique platform that may be enhanced by incorporation of additional antiviral agents to prevent STIs via multiple mechanisms.
Evaluation of Poly(lactic-co-glycolic Acid) and Poly(dl-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) Electrospun Fibers for the Treatment of HSV-2 Infection Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications. | Pubmed ID: 28024582 More diverse multipurpose prevention technologies are urgently needed to provide localized, topical pre-exposure prophylaxis against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In this work, we established the foundation for a multipurpose platform, in the form of polymeric electrospun fibers (EFs), to physicochemically treat herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) infection. To initiate this study, we fabricated different formulations of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and poly(dl-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) (PLCL) EFs that encapsulate Acyclovir (ACV), to treat HSV-2 infection in vitro. Our goals were to assess the release and efficacy differences provided by these two different biodegradable polymers, and to determine how differing concentrations of ACV affected fiber efficacy against HSV-2 infection and the safety of each platform in vitro. Each formulation of PLGA and PLCL EFs exhibited high encapsulation efficiency of ACV, sustained-delivery of ACV through one month, and in vitro biocompatibility at the highest doses of EFs tested. Additionally, all EF formulations provided complete and efficacious protection against HSV-2 infection in vitro, regardless of the timeframe of collected fiber eluates tested. This work demonstrates the potential for PLGA and PLCL EFs as delivery platforms against HSV-2, and indicates that these delivery vehicles may be expanded upon to provide protection against other sexually transmitted infections.
Multipurpose Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate Electrospun Fibers for the Prevention of HIV-1 and HSV-2 Infections in Vitro International Journal of Pharmaceutics. | Pubmed ID: 28797967 Sexually transmitted infections affect hundreds of millions of people worldwide. Both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 and -2) and herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) remain incurable, urging the development of new prevention strategies. While current prophylactic technologies are dependent on strict user adherence to achieve efficacy, there is a dearth of delivery vehicles that provide discreet and convenient administration, combined with prolonged-delivery of active agents. To address these needs, we created electrospun fibers (EFs) comprised of FDA-approved polymers, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and poly(DL-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) (PLCL), to provide sustained-release and in vitro protection against HIV-1 and HSV-2. PLGA and PLCL EFs, incorporating the antiretroviral, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), exhibited sustained-release for up to 4 weeks, and provided complete in vitro protection against HSV-2 and HIV-1 for 24h and 1 wk, respectively, based on the doses tested. In vitro cell culture and EpiVaginal tissue tests confirmed the safety of fibers in vaginal and cervical cells, highlighting the potential of PLGA and PLCL EFs as multipurpose next-generation drug delivery vehicles.