In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (13)

Articles by Krishna Asundi in JoVE

Other articles by Krishna Asundi on PubMed

Thumb Force and Muscle Loads Are Influenced by the Design of a Mechanical Pipette and by Pipetting Tasks

Human Factors. 2005  |  Pubmed ID: 15960087

Work involving pipetting is associated with elevated rates of musculoskeletal disorders of the hand and wrist. The purpose of this study was to quantify thumb loading and muscle activity and determine if they varied among pipetting tasks. Fourteen experienced participants performed nine pipetting tasks while surface electromyography was measured for the extensor pollicis brevis, abductor pollicis longus, flexor pollicis longus, and abductor pollicis brevis muscles. For five tasks, participants used a pipette instrumented to measure the thumb force applied to the plunger. High-precision tasks significantly increased static muscle activity but reduced peak thumb force on average 5% as compared with low-precision tasks. Pipetting high-viscosity fluids increased peak thumb forces on average 11% as compared with pipetting low-viscosity fluids. Use of a latch pipette increased muscle activity of three muscles. We conclude that pipette design and pipetting tasks can influence applied thumb force and muscle activity. We recommend that pipettes be designed to limit applied peak forces and that pipette users be instructed in use patterns that will reduce applied forces. Actual or potential applications of this research include modifications to pipette designs and worker training in order to reduce hand pain associated with pipetting.

In Vitro System for Applying Cyclic Loads to Connective Tissues Under Displacement or Force Control

Annals of Biomedical Engineering. Jul, 2007  |  Pubmed ID: 17385043

Overuse is thought to be the primary cause of chronic tendon injuries, in which forceful or repetitive loading results in an accumulation of micro-tears leading to a maladaptive repair response. In vitro organ culture models provide a useful method for examining how specific loading patterns affect the cellular response to load which may explain the early mechanisms of tissue injury associated with tendinopathies and ligament injuries. We designed a novel tissue loading system which employs closed-loop force feedback, capable of loading six tissue samples independently under force or displacement control. The system was capable of applying loads up to 40 N at rates of 100 N s(-1) and frequencies of 2 Hz, well above loads and rates measured in rabbit tendons in vivo. Loading parameters such as amplitude, rate, and frequency can be controlled while biomechanical factors such as creep, force relaxation, tangent modulus and Young's modulus can be assessed. The system can be used to examine the relationship between each loading parameter and biomechanical factors of connective tissues maintained in culture which may provide useful information regarding the etiology of overuse injuries.

Cyclic Loading Inhibits Expression of MMP-3 but Not MMP-1 in an in Vitro Rabbit Flexor Tendon Model

Clinical Biomechanics (Bristol, Avon). Jan, 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 17892905

Gene expression analysis is useful for assessing cellular behavior and may improve our understanding of the initial cellular response to mechanical load leading to tendon degeneration. This study assessed gene expression of MMP-1 and MMP-3, genes associated with matrix degradation, in tendons exposed to cyclic loads within physiologic range.

Evaluation of Gene Expression Through QRT-PCR in Cyclically Loaded Tendons: an in Vivo Model

European Journal of Applied Physiology. Feb, 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 17922137

An in vivo rabbit animal model for the tendinopathy, epicondylitis, was used to examine the effects of repetitive load on the expression of various genes associated with matrix remodeling. Following 80 h of cumulative load, tissue from the distal and proximal regions of the flexor digitorum profundus tendon was collected. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to asses mRNA levels of collagenase-1 (MMP-1), stromelysin (MMP-3), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), type III collagen (COL-III) and fibronectin (FBRN). No significant differences in expression levels were found between loaded and unloaded limbs at either region of the tendon. The findings were unexpected as the same model has already demonstrated an increase in the density of cells staining for VEGF and CTGF. Different regulatory mechanisms between mRNA and protein expression or localized changes missed due to homogenization of the tissue samples, may explain the discrepancy in findings.

MMP-1, IL-1beta, and COX-2 MRNA Expression is Modulated by Static Load in Rabbit Flexor Tendons

Annals of Biomedical Engineering. Feb, 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 18172766

Tendon cells respond to their mechanical environment by synthesizing and degrading the surrounding matrix. This study examined how expression of genes associated with tendon degeneration is affected by static loads. Forty flexor tendons from 10 New Zealand White rabbits were harvested and secured in a tissue loading system. A static load of 0, 2, 4, or 6 MPa was applied to tendons for 20 h. MMP-1, IL-1beta, COX-2, GAPDH, and 18s mRNA expression was measured by qRT-PCR. MMP-1 expression in tendons loaded to 6 MPa was significantly increased 259% compared to tendons loaded to 4 MPa. Relative to a 0 MPa load, IL-1beta expression was inhibited with load at 4 MPa (48%) while COX-2 expression was increased at 6 MPa (219%). A polynomial regression analysis found a significant positive correlation between creep and expression of MMP-1 (R(2) = 0.53, p < 0.001) and IL-1beta (R(2) = 0.55, p < 0.001). The results of this study indicate that moderate load inhibits IL-1beta and high load stimulates COX-2 relative to stress shielding. MMP-1 expression is up-regulated with high loads compared to moderate loads. The correlation between creep and expression suggests that the pathway for MMP-1 and IL-1beta expression, leading eventually to tendon degeneration, may be regulated by the biomechanical factor creep.

Pinch Force and Forearm-muscle Load During Routine Colonoscopy: a Pilot Study

Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Jan, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19111694

Overuse injuries of the hand, wrist, forearm, and shoulder are common among endoscopists and may be from repetitive pinching and gripping forces or awkward posturing. In this pilot study, we evaluated distal upper-extremity musculoskeletal load during colonoscopy (1) to confirm the feasibility of performing ergonomic measurements in endoscopists and (2) to identify tasks that may contribute to overuse injuries.

Inertia Artefacts and Their Effect on the Parameterisation of Keyboard Reaction Forces

Ergonomics. Oct, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19787505

Reaction force measurements collected during typing on keyboard trays contain inertia artefacts due to dynamic movements of the supporting work surface. To evaluate the effect of these artefacts, vertical forces and accelerations were measured while nine volunteers touch-typed on a rigid desk and a compliant keyboard tray. Two signal processing methods were evaluated: 1) low pass filtering with 20 Hz cut-off; 2) inertial force cancellation by subtracting the accelerometer signal. High frequency artefacts in the force signal, present on both surfaces, were eliminated by low pass filtering. Low frequency artefacts, present only when subjects typed on the keyboard tray, were attenuated by subtracting the accelerometer signal. Attenuation of these artefacts altered the descriptive statistics of the force signal by as much as 7%. For field measurements of typing force, reduction of low frequency artefacts should be considered for making more accurate comparisons across groups using work surfaces with different compliances. Direct measures of physical risk factors in the workplace can improve understanding of the aetiology of musculoskeletal disorders. Findings from this study characterise inertia artefacts in typing force measures and provide a method for eliminating them. These artefacts can add variability to measures, masking possible differences between subject groups.

Notebook Computer Use on a Desk, Lap and Lap Support: Effects on Posture, Performance and Comfort

Ergonomics. Jan, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 20069483

This study quantified postures of users working on a notebook computer situated in their lap and tested the effect of using a device designed to increase the height of the notebook when placed on the lap. A motion analysis system measured head, neck and upper extremity postures of 15 adults as they worked on a notebook computer placed on a desk (DESK), the lap (LAP) and a commercially available lapdesk (LAPDESK). Compared with the DESK, the LAP increased downwards head tilt 6 degrees and wrist extension 8 degrees . Shoulder flexion and ulnar deviation decreased 13 degrees and 9 degrees , respectively. Compared with the LAP, the LAPDESK decreased downwards head tilt 4 degrees , neck flexion 2 degrees , and wrist extension 9 degrees. Users reported less discomfort and difficulty in the DESK configuration. Use of the lapdesk improved postures compared with the lap; however, all configurations resulted in high values of wrist extension, wrist deviation and downwards head tilt. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This study quantifies postures of users working with a notebook computer in typical portable configurations. A better understanding of the postures assumed during notebook computer use can improve usage guidelines to reduce the risk of musculoskeletal injuries.

Ergonomic Products

Work (Reading, Mass.). 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 21673437

Effects of Keyboard Keyswitch Design: a Review of the Current Literature

Work (Reading, Mass.). 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 21673442

This article aims to provide designers and researchers with a summary of the current literature regarding the effects of specific keyswitch design parameters on user preference, performance, and biomechanical outcomes.

Does Elevating and Tilting the Input Device Support Surface Affect Typing Force and Postural Exposures of the Wrist?

Work (Reading, Mass.). 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 21673446

Compare wrist kinematics and typing force during computer work across two workstations, one configured according to recommended guidelines with the keyboard support surface flat and near resting elbow height, the other according to users' actual setup and preference, with an elevated, and positively tilted support surface.

Changes in Posture Through the Use of Simple Inclines with Notebook Computers Placed on a Standard Desk

Applied Ergonomics. Mar, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 21774912

This study evaluated the use of simple inclines as a portable peripheral for improving head and neck postures during notebook computer use on tables in portable environments such as hotel rooms, cafés, and airport lounges. A 3D motion analysis system measured head, neck and right upper extremity postures of 15 participants as they completed a 10 min computer task in six different configurations, all on a fixed height desk: no-incline, 12° incline, 25° incline, no-incline with external mouse, 25° incline with an external mouse, and a commercially available riser with external mouse and keyboard. After completion of the task, subjects rated the configuration for comfort and ease of use and indicated perceived discomfort in several body segments. Compared to the no-incline configuration, use of the 12° incline reduced forward head tilt and neck flexion while increasing wrist extension. The 25° incline further reduced head tilt and neck flexion while further increasing wrist extension. The 25° incline received the lowest comfort and ease of use ratings and the highest perceived discomfort score. For portable, temporary computing environments where internal input devices are used, users may find improved head and neck postures with acceptable wrist extension postures with the utilization of a 12° incline.

Variance in Direct Exposure Measures of Typing Force and Wrist Kinematics Across Hours and Days Among Office Computer Workers

Ergonomics. 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22676481

To determine the number of direct measurements needed to obtain a representative estimate of typing force and wrist kinematics, continuous measures of keyboard reaction force and wrist joint angle were collected at the workstation of 22 office workers while they completed their own work over three days, six hours per day. Typing force and wrist kinematics during keyboard, mouse and idle activities were calculated for each hour of measurement along with variance in measurements between subjects and between day and hour within subjects. Variance in measurements between subjects was significantly greater than variance in measurements between days and hours within subjects. Therefore, we concluded a single, one-hour period of continuous measures is sufficient to identify differences in typing force and wrist kinematics between subjects. Within subjects, day and hour of measurement had a significant effect on some measures and thus should be accounted for when comparing measures within a subject. PRACTITIONER SUMMARY: The dose response relationship between exposure to computer related biomechanical risk factors and musculoskeletal disorders is poorly understood due to the difficulty and cost of direct measures. This study demonstrates a single hour of direct continuous measures is sufficient to identify differences in wrist kinematics and typing force between individuals.

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