In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (8)
- Human Molecular Genetics
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Matrix Biology : Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
- Nuclear Medicine and Biology
- Journal of Bone and Mineral Research : the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
- Cells, Tissues, Organs
- NPJ Regenerative Medicine
Articles by Kurt D. Hankenson in JoVE
Fracture Apparatus Design and Protocol Optimization for Closed-stabilized Fractures in Rodents Robert L Zondervan1,2, Mitch Vorce3, Nick Servadio4, Kurt D. Hankenson2 1College of Osteopathic Medicine, Michigan State University, 2Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Michigan Medical School, 3Lymann Briggs College, Michigan State University, 4College of Engineering, Michigan State University The goal of the protocol is to optimize the fracture generation parameters to yield consistent fractures. This protocol accounts for the variations in bone size and morphology that may exist between animals. Additionally, a cost-effective, adjustable fracture apparatus is described.
Other articles by Kurt D. Hankenson on PubMed
Huntingtin Interacting Protein 1 Mutations Lead to Abnormal Hematopoiesis, Spinal Defects and Cataracts Human Molecular Genetics. Apr, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 14998932 Huntingtin Interacting Protein 1 (HIP1) binds clathrin and AP2, is overexpressed in multiple human tumors, and transforms fibroblasts. The function of HIP1 is unknown although it is thought to play a fundamental role in clathrin trafficking. Gene-targeted Hip1-/- mice develop premature testicular degeneration and severe spinal deformities. Yet, although HIP1 is expressed in many tissues including the spleen and bone marrow and was part of a leukemogenic translocation, its role in hematopoiesis has not been examined. In this study we report that three different mutations of murine Hip1 lead to hematopoietic abnormalities reflected by diminished early progenitor frequencies and resistance to 5-FU-induced bone marrow toxicity. Two of the Hip1 mutant lines also display the previously described spinal defects. These observations indicate that, in addition to being required for the survival/proliferation of cancer cells and germline progenitors, HIP1 is also required for the survival/proliferation of diverse types of somatic cells, including hematopoietic progenitors.
Regulation of Osteoblastogenesis and Bone Mass by Wnt10b Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Mar, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15728361 Wnts comprise a family of secreted signaling proteins that regulate diverse developmental processes. Activation of Wnt signaling by Wnt10b inhibits differentiation of preadipocytes and blocks adipose tissue development; however, the effect of Wnt10b on other mesenchymal lineages has not been defined. To explore the physiological role of Wnt signaling in bone development, we analyzed FABP4-Wnt10b mice, which express the Wnt10b transgene in marrow. Femurs from FABP4-Wnt10b mice have almost four times as much bone in the distal metaphyses and are mechanically stronger. These mice maintain elevated bone mass at least through 23 months of age. In addition, FABP4-Wnt10b mice are protected from the bone loss characteristic of estrogen deficiency. We used pharmacological and genetic approaches to demonstrate that canonical Wnt signaling stimulates osteoblastogenesis and inhibits adipogenesis of bipotential mesenchymal precursors. Wnt10b shifts cell fate toward the osteoblast lineage by induction of the osteoblastogenic transcription factors Runx2, Dlx5, and osterix and suppression of the adipogenic transcription factors C/EBPalpha and PPARgamma. One mechanism whereby Wnt10b promotes osteoblastogenesis is suppression of PPARgamma expression. Finally, Wnt10b-/- mice have decreased trabecular bone and serum osteocalcin, confirming that Wnt10b is an endogenous regulator of bone formation.
Increased Osteoblastogenesis and Decreased Bone Resorption Protect Against Ovariectomy-induced Bone Loss in Thrombospondin-2-null Mice Matrix Biology : Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology. Aug, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15979292 Although bone is composed primarily of extracellular matrix (ECM), the dynamic role that the ECM plays in regulating bone remodeling secondary to estrogen loss is relatively unexplored. Previous studies have shown that mice deficient in the matricellular protein thrombospondin-2 (TSP2-null) form excess endocortical bone; thus, we postulated that enhanced bone formation in TSP2-null mice could protect against ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss. Wild-type (WT) OVX mice showed a significant loss of both midfemoral endocortical and proximal tibial trabecular bone, but OVX did not significantly alter TSP2-null bone. TSP2-null mice showed an increase in bone formation, as indicated by a 70% increase in serum osteocalcin two weeks post OVX and a two-fold increase in bone formation rate (BFR) five weeks post OVX as measured by dynamic histomorphometry. WT animals showed only a 20% increase in serum osteocalcin at two weeks and no change in BFR at five weeks. This increase in bone formation in TSP2-null OVX mice was accompanied by a three-fold increase in osteoprogenitor number. Although these results provide a partial explanation for the maintenance of bone geometry post-OVX, TSP2-null mice five weeks post-OVX also showed a significantly lower level of bone resorption than OVX WT mice, as determined by serum levels of the amino-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (NTx). We conclude that the absence of TSP2 protects against OVX-induced bone loss by two complementary processes: increased formation and decreased resorption.
A Simple Method for Stem Cell Labeling with Fluorine 18 Nuclear Medicine and Biology. Oct, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16243645 Hexadecyl-4-[(18)F]fluorobenzoate ([(18)F]HFB), a long chain fluorinated benzoic acid ester, was prepared in a one-step synthesis by aromatic nucleophilic substitution of [(18)F]fluoride ion on hexadecyl-4-(N,N,N-trimethylammonio)benzoate. The radiolabeled ester was obtained in good yields (52% decay corrected) and high purity (97%). [(18)F]HFB was used to radiolabel rat mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) by absorption into cell membranes. MicroPET imaging of [(18)F]HFB-labeled MSCs following intravenous injection into the rat showed the expected high and persistent accumulation of radioactivity in the lungs. [(18)F]HFB is thus simple to prepare and uses labeling agent for short-term distribution studies of injected stem cells.
Mice Lacking Thrombospondin 2 Show an Atypical Pattern of Endocortical and Periosteal Bone Formation in Response to Mechanical Loading Bone. Mar, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16290255 Thrombospondin 2 (TSP2) is an extracellular matrix (ECM) protein localized to bone. Since mice with a targeted disruption of the TSP2 gene (TSP2-null) have increased bone formation, we hypothesized that mice lacking TSP2 would show an enhanced osteogenic response to mechanical loading. We addressed our hypothesis by subjecting wild-type (WT) and TSP2-null mice to mechanical loading using the non-invasive murine tibia loading device, and statistical comparisons were made between loaded and unloaded bones within genotype, between genotypes, and between the periosteal and endocortical surfaces within genotype. Right tibiae of WT and TSP2-null mice received 5 days of a low-magnitude loading protocol. This low-magnitude loading (inducing approximately 900 and 500 muepsilon at periosteal and endocortical surfaces of WT bones, respectively) affected neither periosteal nor endocortical bone formation rate (BFR/BS) when comparing loaded to intact bones in either WT or TSP2-null mice, nor did it result in any significant differences between WT and TSP2-null. As well, there was no difference between loaded endocortical and periosteal surfaces in WT mice; however, endocortical BFR/BS in TSP2-null loaded tibia was significantly elevated relative to the periosteal BFR/BS-despite peak periosteal strains being significantly greater than endocortical strains in TSP2-null mice (690 versus 460 muepsilon). To confirm this counterintuitive surface-specific response in TSP2-null mice and to induce significant periosteal bone formation, osteogenic potency of the loading protocol was amplified by doubling the number of loading bouts (10 loading days) and loading magnitude (1 Hz, resulting in 1400 and 900 muepsilon peak strain at the periosteal and endocortical surfaces, respectively). Under load, both WT and TSP2-null mice showed significantly increased periosteal mineralizing surface (by nearly three-fold and five-fold, respectively), but mineral apposition rate (MAR) was not statistically changed. The increased MS/BS resulted in a five-fold increase in WT periosteal BFR/BS, but the TSP2-null periosteal BFR/BS was unchanged. Furthermore, this increase in WT loaded periosteal BFR/BS was statistically greater than the WT endocortical BFR/BS. At the endocortical surface of WT mice, loading did not significantly increase bone formation parameters (versus intact). In contrast, at the endocortical surface of TSP2-null mice, loading induced a significant two-fold increase in BFR/BS (versus intact), that was also significantly greater than the endocortical BFR/BS of loaded WT mice. Thus, exogenous loading of TSP2-null mice resulted in highly variable responses that did not reflect the induced strains at the periosteal and endocortical surfaces. While in WT mice, loading resulted in increased periosteal BFR/BS that was greater than the endocortical BFR/BS, in TSP2-null mice loading resulted in endocortical (not periosteal) BFR/BS that was elevated. This reversal in envelope-specific bone formation in TSP2-null mice occurred despite periosteal strains being significantly greater than endocortical (1290 versus 775 muepsilon) and strain distributions being similar to that of WT. These results show that the disruption of a single gene can lead to a reversal in normal pattern of load induced bone formation, and more specifically, that the functional interaction of TSP2 with mechanical loading is highly contextual and specific to the cortical bone envelope examined.
Wnt10b Increases Postnatal Bone Formation by Enhancing Osteoblast Differentiation Journal of Bone and Mineral Research : the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. Dec, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17708715 Overexpression of Wnt10b from the osteocalcin promoter in transgenic mice increases postnatal bone mass. Increases in osteoblast perimeter, mineralizing surface, and bone formation rate without detectable changes in pre-osteoblast proliferation, osteoblast apoptosis, or osteoclast number and activity suggest that, in this animal model, Wnt10b primarily increases bone mass by stimulating osteoblastogenesis.
Ectopic Expression of Col2.3 and Col3.6 Promoters in the Brain and Association with Leptin Signaling Cells, Tissues, Organs. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21555864 The collagen 2.3 and 3.6 promoters have been used to drive Cre expression for generation of conditional transgenic mutant mice. Within the bone, Col3.6 is expressed by mesenchymal precursor cells and their downstream progeny, while Col2.3 is more osteoblast specific. Our generation of transgenic mice with Col2.3-Cre- and Col3.6-Cre-driven deletion of the long-form leptin receptor (ObRb) necessitated a thorough analysis of the nonspecific expression of these promoters in the central nervous system. Both Col2.3 and Col3.6 were capable of forcing loxP recombination in the brain as demonstrated by EGFP expression in ROSA reporter mice. Expression of Col2.3 was limited to the central base of the brain near the third ventricle. In contrast, robust expression of Col3.6 was noted throughout the brain, centering near the distal third ventricle, third ventricle, and aqueduct. We subsequently analyzed the colocalization of leptin-responsive P-Stat3 neurons with Col3.6-expressing neurons. Approximately 5-10% colocalization was noted in leptin-responsive brain areas such as the arcuate nucleus, dorsal medial hypothalamus, ventral premammillary nucleus, and lateral hypothalamus. Injection of 3.6(Cre+F/F) ObRb knockout mice with leptin confirmed the presence of an intact P-Stat3 response that was dampened in the lateral hypothalamus (p < 0.050). This test was done to explore the contribution of neural leptin signaling to the bone phenotype of the 3.6(Cre+F/F) mice. Our analysis indicates that neural ObRb deletion, while present, is likely not the sole driver of femoral changes through traditional sympathetic circuits.
Intraoperative Delivery of the Notch Ligand Jagged-1 Regenerates Appendicular and Craniofacial Bone Defects NPJ Regenerative Medicine. 2017 | Pubmed ID: 29302365 Each year, 33% of US citizens suffer from a musculoskeletal condition that requires medical intervention, with direct medical costs approaching $1 trillion USD per year. Despite the ubiquity of skeletal dysfunction, there are currently limited safe and efficacious bone growth factors in clinical use. Notch is a cell-cell communication pathway that regulates self-renewal and differentiation within the mesenchymal/osteoblast lineage. The principal Notch ligand in bone, Jagged-1, is a potent osteoinductive protein that positively regulates post-traumatic bone healing in animals. This report describes the temporal regulation of Notch during intramembranous bone formation using marrow ablation as a model system and demonstrates decreased bone formation following disruption of Jagged-1 in mesenchymal progenitor cells. Notch gain-of-function using recombinant Jagged-1 protein on collagen scaffolds promotes healing of craniofacial (calvarial) and appendicular (femoral) surgical defects in both mice and rats. Localized delivery of Jagged-1 promotes bone apposition and defect healing, while avoiding the diffuse bone hypertrophy characteristic of the clinically problematic bone morphogenetic proteins. It is concluded that Jagged-1 is a bone-anabolic agent with therapeutic potential for regenerating traumatic or congenital bone defects.