In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (19)

Articles by Lars Büttner in JoVE

Other articles by Lars Büttner on PubMed

Passive Directional Discrimination in Laser-Doppler Anemometry by the Two-wavelength Quadrature Homodyne Technique

Applied Optics. Jul, 2003  |  Pubmed ID: 12868823

We report a method for passive optical directional discrimination in laser-Doppler anemometers. For this purpose frequency-shift elements such as acousto-optic modulators, which are bulky and difficult to align during assembly, have traditionally been employed. We propose to use a quadrature homodyne technique to achieve directional discrimination of the fluid flow without any frequency-shift elements. It is based on the employment of two laser wavelengths, which generate two interference fringe systems with a phase shift of a quarter of the common fringe spacing. Measurement signal pairs with a direction-dependent phase shift of +/- pi/2 are generated. As a robust signal-processing technique, the cross-correlation technique is used. The principles of quadrature homodyne laser-Doppler anemometry are investigated. A setup that provides a constant phase shift of pi/2 throughout the entire measurement volume was achieved with both single-mode and multimode radiation. The directional discrimination was successfully verified with wind tunnel measurements. The complete passive technique offers the potential of building miniaturized measurement heads that can be integrated, e.g., into wind tunnel models.

Investigation of the Influence of Spatial Coherence of a Broad-area Laser Diode on the Interference Fringe System of a Mach-Zehnder Interferometer for Highly Spatially Resolved Velocity Measurements

Applied Optics. Mar, 2005  |  Pubmed ID: 15813259

Laser Doppler anemometry is a method for absolute velocity measurements that is based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer arrangement and usually employs transverse fundamental-mode lasers. We employed inexpensive and powerful broad-area laser diodes and investigated ways in which an interference fringe system is influenced by the spatial coherence properties of a multimode beam. It was demonstrated that, owing to poor spatial coherence of the beam, interference is suppressed in the marginal regions of the intersection volume. Based on these results, a sensor for highly spatially resolved velocity measurements can be built. The inherent astigmatism of the broad-area diode is corrected by an arrangement of two crossed cylindrical lenses. An interference fringe system of length 200 microm and a relative variation in fringe-spacing of only 0.22% were demonstrated with light emitted from a broad-area laser diode with a 100 microm x 1 microm emitter size. Based on this principle a powerful, simple, and robust laser Doppler sensor has been achieved. Highly spatially resolved measurements of a boundary layer flow are presented.

Laser-Doppler Velocity Profile Sensor with Submicrometer Spatial Resolution That Employs Fiber Optics and a Diffractive Lens

Applied Optics. Apr, 2005  |  Pubmed ID: 15861832

We report a novel laser-Doppler velocity profile sensor for microfluidic and nanofluidic applications and turbulence research. The sensors design is based on wavelength-division multiplexing. The high dispersion of a diffractive lens is used to generate a measurement volume with convergent and divergent interference fringes by means of two laser wavelengths. Evaluation of the scattered light from tracers allows velocity gradients to be measured in flows with submicrometer spatial resolution inside a measurement volume of 700-microm length. Using diffraction optics and fiber optics, we achieved a miniaturized and robust velocity profile sensor for highly resolved velocity measurements.

Monochromatic Heterodyne Fiber-optic Profile Sensor for Spatially Resolved Velocity Measurements with Frequency Division Multiplexing

Applied Optics. May, 2005  |  Pubmed ID: 15881057

Investigating shear flows is important in technical applications as well as in fundamental research. Velocity measurements with high spatial resolution are necessary. Laser Doppler anemometry allows nonintrusive precise measurements, but the spatial resolution is limited by the size of the measurement volume to approximately 50 microm. A new laser Doppler profile sensor is proposed, enabling determination of the velocity profile inside the measurement volume. Two fringe systems with contrary fringe spacing gradients are generated to determine the position as well as the velocity of passing tracer particles. Physically discriminating between the two measuring channels is done by a frequency-division-multiplexing technique with acousto-optic modulators. A frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser and a fiber-optic measuring head were employed, resulting in a portable and flexible sensor. In the center of the measurement volume of approximately 1-mm length, a spatial resolution of approximately 5 microm was obtained. Spatially resolved measurements of the Blasius velocity profile are presented. Small velocities as low as 3 cm/s are measured. The sensor is applied in a wind tunnel to determine the wall shear stress of a boundary layer flow. All measurement results show good agreement with the theoretical prediction.

Determination of the Axial Velocity Component by a Laser-Doppler Velocity Profile Sensor

Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision. Feb, 2006  |  Pubmed ID: 16477848

We report about the determination of the axial velocity component by a laser Doppler velocity profile sensor that is based on two superposed fanlike interference fringe systems. Evaluation of the ratio of the Doppler frequencies obtained from each fringe system yields the lateral velocity component and the axial position inside the fringe system. Inclined particle trajectories result in chirped burst signals, where the change of the Doppler frequency in one burst signal is directly related to the axial velocity component. For one single tracer particle it is possible to determine (i) the lateral velocity component, (ii) the axial velocity component including the direction, and (iii) the axial position of the tracer trajectory. In this paper we present the measurement principle and report about results from simulation and experiments. An uncertainty of the axial velocity component of about 3% and a spatial resolution in the micrometer range were achieved. Possible applications of the sensor lie in three-component velocity measurements of flow fields where only one optical access is available.

Fiber-optic Laser Doppler Turbine Tip Clearance Probe

Optics Letters. May, 2006  |  Pubmed ID: 16642064

A laser Doppler based method for in situ single blade tip clearance measurements of turbomachines with high precision is presented for what we believe is the first time. The sensor is based on two superposed fanlike interference fringe systems generated by two laser wavelengths from a fiber-coupled, passive, and therefore compact measurement head employing diffractive optics. Tip clearance measurements at a transonic centrifugal compressor performed during operation at 50,000 rpm (833 Hz, 586 m/s tip speed) are reported. At these speeds the measured uncertainty of the tip position was less than 20 microm, a factor of 2 more accurate than that of capacitive probes. The sensor offers great potential for in situ and online high-precision tip clearance measurements of metallic and nonmetallic turbine blades.

Measurement Uncertainty and Temporal Resolution of Doppler Global Velocimetry Using Laser Frequency Modulation

Applied Optics. Jul, 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 18641765

A Doppler global velocimetry (DGV) measurement technique with a sinusoidal laser frequency modulation is presented for measuring velocity fields in fluid flows. A cesium absorption cell is used for the conversion of the Doppler shift frequency into a change in light intensity, which can be measured by a fiber coupled avalanche photo diode array. Because of a harmonic analysis of the detector element signals, no errors due to detector offset drifts occur and no reference detector array is necessary for measuring the scattered light power. Hence, large errors such as image misalignment errors and beam split errors are eliminated. Furthermore, the measurement system is also capable of achieving high measurement rates up to the modulation frequency (100 kHz) and thus opens new perspectives to multiple point investigations of instationary flows, e.g., for turbulence analysis. A fundamental measurement uncertainty analysis based on the theory of Cramér and Rao is given and validated by experimental results. The current relation between time resolution and measurement uncertainty, as well as further optimization strategies, are discussed.

Laser Doppler Field Sensor for High Resolution Flow Velocity Imaging Without Camera

Applied Optics. Sep, 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 18806865

In this paper we present a laser sensor for highly spatially resolved flow imaging without using a camera. The sensor is an extension of the principle of laser Doppler anemometry (LDA). Instead of a parallel fringe system, diverging and converging fringes are employed. This method facilitates the determination of the tracer particle position within the measurement volume and leads to an increased spatial and velocity resolution compared to conventional LDA. Using a total number of four fringe systems the flow is resolved in two spatial dimensions and the orthogonal velocity component. Since no camera is used, the resolution of the sensor is not influenced by pixel size effects. A spatial resolution of 4 microm in the x direction and 16 microm in the y direction and a relative velocity resolution of 1x10(-3) have been demonstrated up to now. As a first application we present the velocity measurement of an injection nozzle flow. The sensor is also highly suitable for applications in nano- and microfluidics, e.g., for the measurement of flow rates.

Laser Doppler Sensor Employing a Single Fan-shaped Interference Fringe System for Distance and Shape Measurement of Laterally Moving Objects

Applied Optics. Jan, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19107183

For monitoring the position and shape of fast moving and, especially, rotating objects such as turbo machine rotors, contactless and compact sensors with a high measurement rate as well as high precision are required. We present for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, a novel laser Doppler sensor employing a single fan-shaped interference fringe system, which allows measuring for the position and shape of fast moving solid bodies with known tangential velocity. It is shown theoretically as well as experimentally that this sensor offers concurrently high position resolution and high temporal resolution in contrast to conventional measurement techniques, since its measurement uncertainty is, in principle, independent of the object velocity. Moreover, it can be built very compact, because it features low complexity. To prove its operational capability and its potential for practical applications, radial and axial shape measurements of rotating bodies are demonstrated in comparison with triangulation. An average position resolution of about 2 microm could be achieved.

Scattering Effects at Near-wall Flow Measurements Using Doppler Global Velocimetry

Applied Optics. Jul, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 21772394

Doppler global velocimetry (DGV) is considered to be a useful optical measurement tool for acquiring flow velocity fields. Often near-wall measurements are required, which is still challenging due to errors resulting from background scattering and multiple-particle scattering. Since the magnitudes of both errors are unknown so far, they are investigated by scattering simulations and experiments. Multiple-particle scattering mainly causes a stochastic error, which can be reduced by averaging. Contrary to this, background scattering results in a relative systematic error, which is directly proportional to the ratio of the background scattered light power to the total scattered light power. After applying a correction method and optimizing the measurement arrangement, a subsonic flat plate boundary layer was successfully measured achieving a minimum wall distance of 100 μm with a maximum relative error of 6%. The investigations reveal the current capabilities and perspectives of DGV for near-wall measurements.

Analysis of the Electrolyte Convection Inside the Concentration Boundary Layer During Structured Electrodeposition of Copper in High Magnetic Gradient Fields

Analytical Chemistry. Mar, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23432054

To experimentally reveal the correlation between electrodeposited structure and electrolyte convection induced inside the concentration boundary layer, a highly inhomogeneous magnetic field, generated by a magnetized Fe-wire, has been applied to an electrochemical system. The influence of Lorentz and magnetic field gradient force to the local transport phenomena of copper ions has been studied using a novel two-component laser Doppler velocity profile sensor. With this sensor, the electrolyte convection within 500 μm of a horizontally aligned cathode is presented. The electrode-normal two-component velocity profiles below the electrodeposited structure show that electrolyte convection is induced and directed toward the rim of the Fe-wire. The measured deposited structure directly correlates to the observed boundary layer flow. As the local concentration of Cu(2+) ions is enhanced due to the induced convection, maximum deposit thicknesses can be found at the rim of the Fe-wire. Furthermore, a complex boundary layer flow structure was determined, indicating that electrolyte convection of second order is induced. Moreover, the Lorentz force-driven convection rapidly vanishes, while the electrolyte convection induced by the magnetic field gradient force is preserved much longer. The progress for research is the first direct experimental proof of the electrolyte convection inside the concentration boundary layer that correlates to the deposited structure and reveals that the magnetic field gradient force is responsible for the observed structuring effect.

Optical Multi-point Measurements of the Acoustic Particle Velocity with Frequency Modulated Doppler Global Velocimetry

The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. Aug, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23927110

To reduce the noise of machines such as aircraft engines, the development and propagation of sound has to be investigated. Since the applicability of microphones is limited due to their intrusiveness, contactless measurement techniques are required. For this reason, the present study describes an optical method based on the Doppler effect and its application for acoustic particle velocity (APV) measurements. While former APV measurements with Doppler techniques are point measurements, the applied system is capable of simultaneous measurements at multiple points. In its current state, the system provides linear array measurements of one component of the APV demonstrated by multi-tone experiments with tones up to 17 kHz for the first time.

Interferometric Velocity Measurements Through a Fluctuating Gas-liquid Interface Employing Adaptive Optics

Optics Express. Dec, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 24514641

Optical transmission through fluctuating interfaces of mediums with different refractive indexes is limited by the occurring distortions. Temporal fluctuations of such distortions deteriorate optical measurements. In order to overcome this shortcoming we propose the use of adaptive optics. For the first time, an interferometric velocity measurement technique with embedded adaptive optics is presented for flow velocity measurements through a fluctuating air-water interface. A low order distortion correction technique using a fast deformable mirror and a Hartmann-Shack camera with high frame rate is employed. The obtained high control bandwidth enables precise measurements also at fast fluctuating media interfaces. This methodology paves the way for several kinds of optical flow measurements in various complex environments.

Interferometric Velocity Measurements Through a Fluctuating Phase Boundary Using Two Fresnel Guide Stars

Optics Letters. Aug, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 26274655

Laser optical techniques are widely used for flow measurements as they offer a high spatial and velocity resolution. However, undisturbed optical access to the measurement volume is desired. In order to measure through a fluctuating phase boundary, we present the use of adaptive optics. In an experiment, we prove that the Fresnel reflex of a phase boundary can be used as a proper guide star for adaptive velocity measurements with a single optical access. Interferometric flow measurements through a fluctuating phase boundary have been accomplished by a Mach-Zehnder interferometer.

Transmission of Independent Signals Through a Multimode Fiber Using Digital Optical Phase Conjugation

Optics Express. Jun, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27410664

Multimode fibers are attractive for a variety of applications such as communication engineering and biophotonics. However, a major hurdle for the optical transmission through multimode fibers is the inherent mode mixing. Although an image transmission was successfully accomplished using wavefront shaping, the image information was not transmitted individually for each of the independent pixels. We demonstrate a transmission of independent signals using individually shaped wavefronts employing a single segmented spatial light modulator for optical phase conjugation regarding each light signal. Our findings pave the way towards transferring independent signals through strongly scattering media.

Wavefront Shaping for Imaging-based Flow Velocity Measurements Through Distortions Using a Fresnel Guide Star

Optics Express. Sep, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27661942

Imaging-based flow measurement techniques, like particle image velocimetry (PIV), are vulnerable to time-varying distortions like refractive index inhomogeneities or fluctuating phase boundaries. Such distortions strongly increase the velocity error, as the position assignment of the tracer particles and the decrease of image contrast exhibit significant uncertainties. We demonstrate that wavefront shaping based on spatially distributed guide stars has the potential to significantly reduce the measurement uncertainty. Proof of concept experiments show an improvement by more than one order of magnitude. Possible applications for the wavefront shaping PIV range from measurements in jets and film flows to biomedical applications.

Adaptive Laser-induced Ultrasound Generation Using a Micro-mirror Array Spatial Light Modulator

Optics Express. Oct, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27828324

Laser ultrasonics is a powerful technique for contactless investigation of important material parameters such as Young's modulus or thin layer thickness. However, the often employed Gaussian beams result in diverging sound fields of quickly decreasing intensity. Conventionally, changing the laser beam profile requires the slow movement or exchange of optical elements. We present a laser ultrasonics setup for the creation of arbitrary intensity distributions by holographic projection using a MEMS spatial light modulator. High-intensity ultrasound foci with a focus width of 1.6 mm are scanned axially in a sample into depths of up to 7.4 mm by projecting ring-shaped intensity distributions of varying diameter without any mechanical movements. This technique is promising for highly spatially resolved flaw detection or a fast scanning investigation of biological tissue.

Spiral Phase Mask Shadow-imaging for 3D-measurement of Flow Fields

Optics Express. Nov, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27906309

Particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) is a valuable tool for microfluidic analysis. Especially mixing processes and the environmental interaction of fluids on a microscopic scale are of particular importance for pharmaceutical and biomedical applications. However, currently applied techniques suffer from the lag of instantaneous depth information. Here we present a scan-free, shadow-imaging PTV-technique for 3D trajectory and velocity measurement of flow fields in micro-channels with 2 µm spatial resolution. By using an incoherent light source, one camera and a spatial light modulator (LCoS-SLM) that generates double-images of the seeding particle shadows, it is a simply applicable and highly scalable technique.

Ultrasound Flow Mapping for the Investigation of Crystal Growth

IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control. Jan, 2017  |  Pubmed ID: 28103551

A high energy conversion and cost efficiency are keys for the transition to renewable energy sources, e.g. solar cells. The efficiency of multi-crystalline solar cells can be improved by enhancing the understanding of its crystallization process, especially the directional solidification. In this paper, a novel measurement system for the characterization of flow phenomena and solidification processes in low-temperature model experiments on the basis of ultrasound Doppler velocimetry is described. It captures turbulent flow phenomena in two planes with a frame rate of 3.5 Hz and tracks the shape of the solid-liquid interface during multi-hour experiments. Time resolved flow mapping is performed using four linear ultrasound arrays with a total of 168 transducer elements. Long duration measurements are enabled through an online, FPGA-based signal processing. Nine single ultrasound transducers allow for in situ tracking of a solid-liquid interface. Results of flow and solidification experiments in the model experiment are presented and compared with numerical simulation. The potential of the developed ultrasound system for measuring turbulent flows and for tracking the solidification front during a directional crystallization process is demonstrated. The results of the model experiments are in good agreement with numerical calculations and can be used for the validation of numerical models, especially the selection of the turbulence model.

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